Barney S. Graham, M.D., Ph.D.Vaccine Research CenterBuilding 40, Room 250240 Convent DriveBethesda, MD 20892-3017Phone: 301-594-8468Fax: firstname.lastname@example.org
The goal of the Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory (VPL) is to better understand basic aspects of viral pathogenesis and immunology and apply that knowledge towards vaccine development. Evaluation of viral pathogenesis and viral immunology is conducted by assessing in vitro systems and animal models, and by evaluating human immune responses to vaccines and viral pathogens in clinical trials.
The major project areas include:
RSV is an important cause of respiratory disease that has received high priority for vaccine development. Previous vaccine candidates have failed in clinical trials, and a formalin-inactivated whole virus preparation (FI-RSV) was associated with vaccine-enhanced illness. Our laboratory has contributed original discoveries and observations in the following areas with the aim of better understanding RSV pathogenesis and identifying new strategies for vaccine development and therapy:
There are two major projects in the VPL focused on RSV pathogenesis. They are derived from the last two projects listed above and have direct implications for vaccine development. One addresses the structural and antigenic properties of G, and the impact of G on modulating immune response and airway physiology. The second is to define the functional properties of CD8+ T cells associated with efficient virus clearance and those associated with immunopathology. In particular, finding vaccine delivery approaches that can selectively induce distinct functional subsets of CD8+ CTL is a priority. These studies will inform our work on vaccine delivery as described below, and are relevant to vaccine development in general.
Immunization by gene delivery is a major VRC platform technology. Using DNA plasmids for gene delivery is particularly attractive because they are easy to construct, modify, and manufacture. A major advantage of vaccination with DNA is that there is no preexisting immunity to the vector. In addition, there is no antigen produced other than the intended vaccine antigen, so there is no competition for antigen processing and presentation that may occur with more complex vector systems. Finally, in clinical trials DNA vaccines have caused no serious adverse reactions that threaten their clinical utility. However, DNA vaccination has never achieved its potential, especially in humans. While clinical trials using VRC plasmids have been well tolerated and shown promising immunogenicity, the dose is still high and not all subjects respond. Therefore, the VPL is exploring new approaches for DNA vaccine delivery that may improve entry, expression, processing, and immunogenicity.
Another project area for the VPL is the support of clinical vaccine studies either through preclinical evaluation of candidate vaccines or by developing assays for endpoint analysis on clinical trial samples. These studies are intended to enhance the design of clinical trials and to improve the interpretation of results.
An example of this work is the murine studies performed prior to the initiation of clinical trials evaluating MVA as a candidate smallpox vaccine. These studies not only showed that MVA was immunogenic and could induce protective immunity against challenge with vaccinia, but began defining the correlates of immunity and demonstrated protection even against a molecularly-modified IL-4 recombinant vaccinia virus with enhanced virulence. In addition, all the vaccinia cultures for the clinical trial were performed in the VPL, and plaque-reduction neutralization assays were performed on sera from the study participants. Finally, a novel kinetic ELISA was developed to measure antibody responses against selected proteins from different forms of vaccinia virus.
Another example in this project area is the evaluation of T cell responses in persons infected with non-clade B HIV. Cryopreserved PBMCs isolated from African immigrants infected with non-clade B HIV are stimulated with peptide pools based on sequences contained within the VRC candidate HIV vaccine, and evaluated for activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by intracellular cytokine staining. In combination with full length sequencing these studies will demonstrate the potential for cross-reactive T cell responses elicited by the VRC multi-clade HIV vaccine to be relevant against HIV strains from diverse epidemics.
Graham BS. Biological challenges and technological opportunities for respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development. Immunol Rev. 2011 Jan;239(1):149-66.
Johnson TR, Johnson CN, Corbett KS, Edwards GC, Graham BS. Primary human mDC1, mDC2, and pDC dendritic cells are differentially infected and activated by respiratory syncytial virus. PLoS ONE. 2010; (in press).
Billam P, Bonaparte KL, Liu J, Ruckwardt TJ, Chen M, Ryder AB, Wang R, Dash P, Thomas PG, Graham BS.T cell receptor clonotype influences epitope hierarchy in the CD8+ T cell response to respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print]
McLellan JS, Chen M, Chang JS, Yang Y, Kim A, Graham BS, Kwong PD.Structure of a major antigenic site on the respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein in complex with neutralizing antibody 101F. J Virol. 2010 Dec;84(23):12236-44. Epub 2010 Sep 29.
Graham BS, Walker C. Meeting the Challenge of Vaccine Design to Control HIV and Other Difficult Viruses, in Immunology of Infectious Diseases. Kaufmann SHE, Rouse B, Sacks D, editors. ASM Press, Washington, DC, 2010, Chapter 44: pages 559-570.
Ruckwardt TJ, Luongo C, Malloy AM, Liu J, Chen M, Collins PL, Graham BS. Responses against a subdominant CD8+ T cell epitope protect against immunopathology caused by a dominant epitope. J Immunol. 2010 Oct 15;185(8):4673-80. Epub 2010 Sep 10.
Liu J, Ruckwardt TJ, Chen M, Nicewonger JD, Johnson TR, Graham BS. Epitope-specific regulatory CD4 T cells reduce virus-induced illness while preserving CD8 T-cell effector function at the site of infection. J Virol. 2010 Oct;84(20):10501-9.
Graham BS, Kines RC, Corbett KS, Nicewonger J, Johnson TR, Chen M, LaVigne D, Roberts JN, Cuburu N, Schiller JT, Buck CB. Mucosal delivery of human papillomavirus pseudovirus-encapsidated plasmids improves the potency of DNA vaccination. Mucosal Immunol. 2010 Sep;3(5):475-86. Epub 2010 Jun 16.
McLellan JS, Chen M, Kim A, Yang Y, Graham BS, Kwong PD.Structural basis of respiratory syncytial virus neutralization by motavizumab. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010 Feb;17(2):248-50. Epub 2010 Jan 24.
Johnson TR, Rao S, Seder RA, Chen M, Graham BS. TLR9 agonist, but not TLR7/8, functions as an adjuvant to diminish FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced disease, while either agonist used as therapy during primary RSV infection increases disease severity. Vaccine. 2009 May 18;27(23):3045-52. Epub 2009 Apr 3
Liu J, Ruckwardt TJ, Chen M, Johnson TR, Graham BS. Characterization of respiratory syncytial virus M- and M2-specific CD4 T cells in a murine model. J Virol. 2009 May;83(10):4934-41. Epub 2009 Mar 4.
Ruckwardt TJ, Bonaparte KL, Nason MC, Graham BS. Regulatory T cells promote early influx of CD8+ T cells in the lungs of respiratory syncytial virus-infected mice and diminish immunodominance disparities. J Virol.. 2009 Apr;83(7):3019-28. Epub 2009 Jan 19.
Collins PL, Graham BS. Viral and host factors in human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis.
J Virol. 2008 Mar;82(5):2040-55. Epub 2007 Oct 10. Review.
Rutigliano JA, Ruckwardt TJ, Martin JE, Graham BS. Relative dominance of epitope-specific CD8+ T cell responses in an F1 hybrid mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus infection. Virology. 2007 Jun 5;362(2):314-9. Epub 2007 Feb 2.
Graham BS, Crowe, J, Jr. Immunization Against Viral Diseases, in “Fields Virology”, Fifth edition, David M. Knipe and Peter M. Howley, editors. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA, 2007; Chapter 15: 487-538.
Rutigliano JA, Rock MT, Johnson AK, Crowe JE Jr, Graham BS. Identification of an H-2Db-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in the matrix protein of respiratory syncytial virus. Virology. 2005
Gower TL, Pastey MK, Peeples ME, Collins PL, Hart TK, Guth A, Johnson TR, Graham BS. RhoA signaling is required for RSV-induced syncytia formation and filamentous virion morphology. J Virol. 2005; 79:5326-5336.
Hashimoto K, Durbin J, Zhou W, Collins RD, Ho SB, Sheller JR, Goleniewska K, O'Neal JF, Olson SJ, Mitchell D, Graham BS, Peebles RS. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in the absence of STAT1 results in airway dysfunction, induction of airway mucus, and augmented IL-17 production. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005.
McCurdy LH, Rutigliano JA, Johnson TR, Chen M, Graham BS. Modified vaccinia Ankara immunization protects against lethal challenge with recombinant vaccinia expressing murine IL-4. J Virol. 2004; 78:12471-12479.
Rutigliano JA, Graham BS. Prolonged production of tumor necrosis factor alpha exacerbates illness during respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2004; 173:3408-3417.
Johnson TR, Varga SM, Braciale TJ, Graham BS. Vß14+ T cells do not mediate the vaccine-enhanced disease induced by immunization with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). J Virol. 2004; 178:8753-8760.
Johnson TR, Teng MN, Collins PL, Graham BS. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G glycoprotein is not necessary for vaccine-enhanced disease induced by immunization with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). J Virol. 2004; 78:6024-6032.
Budge PJ, Li Y, Beeler JA, Graham BS. RhoA-derived peptide dimers share mechanistic properties with other polyanionic inhibitors of respiratory syncytial virus, including disruption of viral attachment and dependence on RSV G. J Virol. 2004; 78:5015-5022.
Rutigliano J, Hollinger T, Fischer JE, Johnson TR, Aung S, Johnson JE, Graham BS. Anti-LFA-1 treatment prevents respiratory syncytial virus-induced illness and delays virus clearance. J Virol. 2004; 78:3014-3023.
Budge P, Graham BS. Antiviral activity of RhoA-derived peptides against respiratory syncytial virus is dependent on the formation of peptide dimers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003; 47:3470-3477.
Johnson TR, Parker RA, Johnson JE, Graham BS. IL-13 in sufficient for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G glycoprotein-induced eosinophilia following RSV challenge. J Immunol. 2003; 170:2037-2045.
McCurdy LH, Graham BS. The role of the plasma membrane lipid microdomain in respiratory syncytial virus filament formation. J Virol. 2003; 77:1747-1756.
Johnson TR, Hong S, Van Kaer L, Altman JD, Koezuka Y, Graham BS. NK T cells contribute to expansion of CD8(+) T cells and amplification of antiviral immune responses to respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol. 2002; 76:4294-4303.
Aung S, Rutigliano JA, Graham BS. Alternative mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus clearance in perforin knockout mice lead to enhanced disease. J Virol. 2001; 75:9918-9924.
Gower TL, Peeples ME, Collins PL, Graham BS. RhoA is activated during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Virology 2001; 283:188-196. (Cover Photomicrograph)
Gower TL, Graham BS. Anti-viral activity of lovastatin against respiratory syncytial virus in vivo and in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001; 45:1231-1237.
Aung S, Graham BS. Differential regulation of perforin- and FasL-mediated cytotoxicity by IL-4. J Immunol. 2000;164:3487-3493.
Pastey MK, Gower TL, Spearman PW, Crowe JE, Jr., Graham BS. A RhoA-derived peptide inhibits syncytium formation induced by respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3. Nature Med. 2000; 6:35-40.
Aung S, Tang YW, Graham BS. IL-4 inhibits induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in mice infected with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing respiratory syncytial virus M2 protein. J Virol. 1999; 73:8944-8949.
Johnson TR, Graham BS. Secreted respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G protein induces IL-5, IL-13, and eosinophilia by an IL-4-independent mechanism. J Virol. 1999; 73:8485-8495.
Pastey MK, Crowe JE, Jr., Graham BS. RhoA interacts with the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus and facilitates virus-induced syncytium formation. J Virol. 1999; 73:7262-7270.
Peebles RS, Jr., Sheller JR, Johnson JE, Mitchell DB, Graham BS. Respiratory syncytial virus infection prolongs methacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. J Med Virol. 1999; 57:186-192.
Johnson TR, Johnson JE, Roberts SR, Wertz GW, Parker RA, Graham BS. Priming with secreted glycoprotein G of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) augments interleukin-5 production and tissue eosinophilia after RSV challenge. J Virol. 1998;72:2871-2880.
Fischer JE, Johnson JE, Kuli-Zade R, Johnson TR, Aung S, Parker RA, Graham BS. Overexpression of IL-4 delays virus clearance in mice infected with RSV. J Virol. 1997;71:8672-8677.
Tang YW, Graham BS. T cell source of type 1 cytokines determines illness pattern in respiratory syncytial virus-infected mice. J Clin Invest. 1997; 99:2183-2191.
Lindgren C, Lin J, Graham BS, Gray ME, Parker RA, Sundell HW. Respiratory syncytial virus infection enhances the response to laryngeal chemostimulation and inhibits arousal from sleep in young lambs. Acta Pediatrica. 1996;85:789-797.
Tang YW, Graham BS. Interleukin 12 treatment during immunization elicits a Th1-like immune response in mice challenged with respiratory syncytial virus and improves vaccine immunogenicity. J Infect Dis. 1995; 172:734-738.
Tang YW, Graham BS. Anti-IL-4 treatment at immunization modulates cytokine expression, reduces illness, and increases cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in mice challenged with respiratory syncytial virus. J Clin Invest. 1994; 94:1953-1958.
Graham BS, Henderson GS, Tang YW, Lu X, Neuzil KM, Colley DG. Priming immunization determines cytokine mRNA expression patterns in lungs of mice challenged with respiratory syncytial virus. J Immunol. 1993; 151:2032-2040.
Lindgren C, Jing L, Graham BS, Grogard J, Sundell H. Respiratory syncytial virus infection reinforces reflex apnea in young lambs. Pediatric Research. 1992;31:381-385.
Graham BS, Bunton LA, Wright PF, Karzon DT. The role of T cell subsets in the pathogenesis of primary infection and reinfection with respiratory syncytial virus in mice. J Clin Invest. 1991; 88:1026-1033.
Graham BS, Bunton LA, Wright PF, Karzon DT. Respiratory syncytial virus in anti-µ treated mice. J Virol. 1991; 65:4936-4942.
Barney S. Graham, M.D., Ph.D.
NIH/Vaccine Research Center
Building 40, Room 2502
40 Convent Drive, MSC 3017
Bethesda, MD 20892-3017
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Last Updated August 02, 2011