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Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases

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Steven M. Holland, M.D.

Photo of Steven M. Holland, M.D.

Chief, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases
Chief, Immunopathogenesis Section, LCID

Major Areas of Research

  • Immune defects of phagocytes: GATA2 deficiency (MonoMAC), nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, chronic granulomatous disease, hyper IgE (Job’s) syndrome, leukocyte adhesion deficiency
  • Cytokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis and therapy of infections
  • Susceptibility to disseminated mycobacterial infections, such as GATA2, autoantibodies to interferon gamma and defects in the interferon gamma/IL-12 pathway
  • Mechanisms of mycobacterial pathogenesis
  • Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis (e.g., Burkholderia)
  • Mechanisms of Coccidioides immitis pathogenesis
  • Mechanisms of airway dysfunction leading to mycobacterial and fungal infection

Program Description

The Immunopathogenesis Section therapeutic and research programs take a fully integrated approach to infectious disease, incorporating the molecular genetics of the host and the pathogen as well as mechanisms of pathogenesis that allow the development and study of novel therapeutics. The integrated bench-to-bedside model is intrinsic to the Immunopathogenesis Section approach and is reflected in the close involvement of trainees (both M.D. and Ph.D.) in laboratory work and in the clinical appreciation of disease, which together add new insights into mechanisms of action and avenues of therapy. New protocols in staphylococcal infections, idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia, and drug-resistant mycobacterial infections are in progress.


Dr. Holland received his M.D. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1983, where he stayed as a resident in internal medicine, assistant chief of service in medicine, and fellow in infectious diseases. He came to the National Institutes of Health in 1989 as a National Research Council fellow in the Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, working on transcriptional regulation of HIV. In 1991, Dr. Holland joined the Laboratory of Host Defenses, shifting his research to the host side, with a focus on phagocyte defects and their associated infections. His work centered on the pathogenesis and management of chronic granulomatous disease, as well as other congenital immune defects affecting phagocytes, including those predisposing to mycobacterial diseases. In 2004, he became chief of LCID.

Group Members

Sarah K. Browne, M.D., Assistant Clinical Investigator
Li Ding, M.D.
Elizabeth P. Sampiao, M.D., Ph.D.
Amy P. Hsu, B.A.
Prabha Chandrasekaran, Ph.D.
Cedar J. Fowler, B.A.
Emilia Falcone, M.D.
Kenneth N. Olivier, M.D.
Gulbu Uzel, M.D.
Alexandra F. Freeman, M.D.
Kathryn Sowerwine, M.D.
Carolyn Henderson, B.A.
Christa S. Zerbe, M.D.

Selected Publications

Sampaio EP, Bax HI, Hsu AP, Kristosturyan E, Pechacek J, Chandrasekaran P, Paulson ML, Dias DL, Spalding C, Uzel G, Ding L, McFarland E, Holland SM. A novel STAT1 mutation associated with disseminated mycobacterial disease. J Clin Immunol. 2012 Aug;32(4):681-9.

Browne SK, Zaman R, Sampaio EP, Jutivorakool K, Rosen LB, Ding L, Pancholi MJ, Yang LM, Long Priel D, Uzel G, Freeman AF, Hayes CE, Baxter R, Cohen SH, Holland SM. Anti-CD20 (Rituximab) therapy for anti-interferon-gamma autoantibody-associated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. Blood. 2012 Apr 26;119(17):3933-9.

Leiding JW, Freeman AF, Marciano BE, Anderson VL, Uzel G, Malech HL, DeRavin S, Wilks D, Venkatesan AM, Zerbe CS, Heller T, Holland SM. Corticosteroid therapy for liver abscess in chronic granulomatous disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Mar 1;54(5):694-700.

Hsu AP, Sampaio EP, Khan J, Calvo KR, Lemieux JE, Patel SY, Frucht DM, Vinh DC, Auth RD, Freeman AF, Olivier KN, Uzel G, Zerbe CS, Spalding C, Pittaluga S, Raffeld M, Kuhns DB, Ding L, Paulson ML, Marciano BE, Gea-Banacloche JC, Orange JS, Cuellar-Rodriguez J, Hickstein DD, Holland SM. Mutations in GATA2 are associated with the autosomal dominant and sporadic monocytopenia and mycobacterial infection (MonoMAC) syndrome. Blood. 2011 Sep 8;118(10):2653-5.

Visit PubMed for a complete publication listing.

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Last Updated October 19, 2012

Last Reviewed October 19, 2012