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National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
http://www.niaid.nih.gov

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Media Contact:
Laura Sivitz
(301) 402-1663
sivitzl@niaid.nih.gov
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NIAID MEDIA AVAILABILITY
Markers of Inflammation and Blood-clotting Tied to Hazards of Intermittent HIV Treatment

What:

Episodic treatment of HIV/AIDS with antiretroviral drugs increases the overall risk of death when compared with continuous antiretroviral treatment (ART), but the reasons why have been unknown. Now, researchers have found that higher levels of certain markers of inflammation and blood-clotting are strongly associated with intermittent ART and with a higher risk of death from non-AIDS diseases.

The new report, published in the open access journal PLoS Medicine, is a further analysis of the “Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy” (SMART) study supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. SMART, which ended in 2006, compared the standard practice of continuous ART to suppress HIV in infected individuals with episodic ART based on CD4+ T-cell counts. The goal was to determine whether reducing exposure to antiretroviral drugs, which may have toxic side effects and can engender drug resistance, would be equally or more beneficial than suppressing HIV continuously. Unexpectedly, those who received episodic ART were more than twice as likely to develop disease or die, and the study ended early as a result.

Reflecting on this outcome, James D. Neaton, Ph.D., of the University of Minnesota, and his colleagues hypothesized that pausing ART and allowing HIV levels to rise stimulated inflammation and blood clotting in some patients, which could lead to disease or death.

To test their hypothesis, the scientists examined blood samples from the SMART trial for proteins that are biological markers of inflammation and blood clotting. They found that people who began the study with relatively higher levels of the biomarkers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer were at greater risk of death than other study participants. They also found that IL-6 and D-dimer levels rose significantly in the intermittent-treatment group compared to the continuous treatment group after just one month of study.

Based on these observations, the authors conclude that HIV-infected patients who have relatively high levels of IL-6 and D-dimer are at greater risk of death. Most of the deaths in SMART were attributed to non-AIDS-related diseases, the authors write, and giving intermittent ART to volunteers who began that study with elevated levels of these biomarkers may have further increased their risk of death.

Article: LH Kuller et al. Inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers and mortality in patients with HIV infection. PLoS Medicine DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050203 (2008).
Who: Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., the director of NIAID, and Karin L. Klingman, M.D., a medical officer in the NIAID Division of AIDS, are available for interviews.
Contact: To schedule an interview with Dr. Fauci or Dr. Klingman, please contact Laura Sivitz, 301-402-1663, sivitzl@niaid.nih.gov.

NIAID conducts and supports research—at NIH, throughout the United States, and worldwide—to study the causes of infectious and immune-mediated diseases, and to develop better means of preventing, diagnosing and treating these illnesses. News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID Web site at www.niaid.nih.gov.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.

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Last Updated October 21, 2008