Skip Navigation
Leading research to understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases
Skip Content Marketing
  • Share this:
  • submit to facebook
  • Tweet it
  • submit to reddit
  • submit to StumbleUpon
  • submit to Google +

NIAID Glossary of Funding and Policy Terms and Acronyms—E

For Institute program-specific acronyms, go to NIAID Profile and Fact Book.

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Term Definition
early-stage investigator

Applicant who is within 10 years of either of the following:

  • Terminal research degree.
  • Medical residency.

ESI is a subset of new investigator status, so ESIs must meet those criteria as well. ESI status affects initial peer review and institute funding decisions.

Go to these resources:


Congressional requirement that a federal agency set aside funds within an appropriation for a stated recipient or purpose, for example, to establish a research center grant program or conduct a clinical trial.

e-Biz POC See e-business point of contact.
e-business point of contact Person who manages an organization's grant activities and gives other staff privileges to submit grant applications through See authorized organizational representative (AOR) and institutional business official.
ECB See Electronic Council Book.
Edison See iEdison.
EIN See Employer Identification Number.
EIR See Employee Invention Report.
Electronic Council Book (ECB)

NIH database system downloaded from IMPAC that shows the following information about a grant application:

ECB also lets members of NIAID's main advisory Council recommend awards early for fundable applications with no special concerns. See human subjects concern, human subjects codes, and animals in research codes.

Go to ECB and NIAID's Lock icon: This link will not work for public visitors.Electronic Council Book SOP.

electronic grant file File containing all official documentation for a grant.
Electronic Research Administration

Information technology infrastructure that enables NIH and other federal agencies to electronically receive and review applications and administer grants. eRA enables NIH and its grantees to have an online dialogue throughout the life cycle of a grant. See eRA Commons.

Go to eRA.

electronic streamlined noncompeting award process (eSNAP)

Formerly used term. See Research Performance Progress Report (RPPR).

electronic Scientific Portfolio Assistant (eSPA)

Formerly used term. See Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT).

embryo Organism in the early stages of development, the first six weeks in humans.
embryonic germ cell Pluripotent stem cell from a fetal gonad cell; precursor to egg or sperm.
embryonic stem cell Pluripotent stem cell derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst-stage embryo.
Employee Invention Report (EIR)

Invention report due to NIAID within two months after an investigator gives written disclosure to an organizational official.

For more information on grants, go to NIAID's Invention Reporting Has Four Parts in the Strategy for NIH Funding and NIH's iEdison.

For more information on contracts, go to NIAID's Invention Reporting for Contracts SOP.

Employer Identification Number (EIN) Identification of a business to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service; also known as a federal tax identification number. EIN is entered on the SF 424 form of a grant application.
en bloc approval

Concurrence by a full advisory Council or a subset of Council members (or occasionally another group) with an initial peer review group to recommend awards for funding. See second-level review.

Go to NIAID's Advisory Council portal.

enrollment report table See Cumulative Inclusion Enrollment Report.
Entire Proposed Project Period Budget

For applications, see Research and Related Budget component form.

For smaller budgets, see modular budget.

Go to NIAID's Plan Your Budget in the Strategy for NIH Funding.

EPMC See Extramural Program Management Committee.
equitable Fair distribution of research benefits and burdens by investigators when selecting human subjects.
eRA See Electronic Research Administration.
eRA Commons

Web-based interface where NIH grantees, staff, and the public access and share administrative information about grants. Part of Electronic Research Administration, it includes both restricted and public sites.

Go to eRA Commons.

eRA Commons signing official See signing official.

For electronic grant applications, failure point resulting from validations in or the NIH eRA Commons. An error stops an application from becoming final and moving to the NIH Center for Scientific Review.

Errors reflect inaccuracies, inconsistencies, omissions, or incorrect formatting. See warning.

Go to these NIAID resources:

error correction window Formerly used term (since NIH eliminated it). See the related viewing window.
escalation Price adjustments based on increases or decreases to indexes identified in a contract.
escalation factor

Percentage of increase applicants can request in a competing non-modular grant application to cover annual changes in the price of items and services. It covers personnel costs but not equipment. Also referred to as inflationary factor.

The awarded escalation factor is linked to the Biomedical Research and Development Price Index. See financial management plan and recommended level of future support.

Go to NIAID's Financial Management Plan on Paylines and Funding.


See early-stage investigator.

eSNAP Formerly used term. See Research Performance Progress Report (RPPR).
ethnic and racial subgroup See racial and ethnic categories and subpopulations.
evaluation criteria

Standards in contracting used to evaluate an offeror's technical and operational effectiveness.

Go to NIAID's Technical Review SOPs on the Contracts portal.

Executive Committee, NIAID

NIAID management committee comprising staff from the NIAID Office of the Director, division directors, and other managers.

Executive Committee makes scientific and management policy decisions, allocates resources, establishes grant paylines, approves grant funding plans, and reviews concepts for presentation to NIAID's main advisory Council.

exemption categories for human subjects research

Human subjects term indicating six research categories exempt from human subjects regulations. See exemption for human subjects research.

Go to definitions in 45 CFR 46.101 and the NIAID Human Subjects Application and Grant Handbook.

exemption for human subjects research

Research excluded from human subjects regulations 45 CFR 46.101. The six human subjects exemptions rarely apply to NIAID-supported investigators because their research is either human subjects or not human subjects. See exemption categories for human subjects research.

Go to these NIAID resources:

exemption for IND application

FDA term for the exemption from the legal requirement that a drug be the subject of an approved marketing application before it is transported or distributed across state lines. The exemption takes place through an investigational new drug from the FDA.

Go to IND definition in 21 CFR 312.3 and FDA's Investigational New Drug (IND) Application.

existing specimen

Specimen or data that are no longer being collected.

Go to these resources:

expanded authorities

Legislation providing greater autonomy to grantees based on regulation 45 CFR Part 74. With the exception of automatic carryover of funds from one budget period to the next, expanded authorities apply to all grants.

Go to these NIAID resources:

expanded access

FDA process that gives access to investigational drugs and investigational medical devices, including treatment investigational new drugs and open study protocols, to people with life-threatening illnesses who are not eligible for a clinical trial when no other effective therapy exists. Also called compassionate use.

Go to definitions in 21 CFR 312.34 and 21 CFR 312.36.

expected adverse event

Adverse event described in package labels, brochures, protocols, and consent forms. Go to the NIAID Clinical Terms of Award.

expedited IRB review

Review of a research project by a designated voting member or members rather than an entire institutional review board, allowed for some low-risk research and minor changes to a study.

Go to these resources:

expedited second-level review

Second-level review of qualifying grant applications by a subset of advisory Council members a few weeks after initial peer review to enable NIAID to make awards earlier. To qualify, an application must rank within the payline and have no concerns identified by the study section or Council.

Go to these NIAID resources:

experimental Therapy unproved or not yet scientifically validated for safety and efficacy. A procedure may be considered experimental without being part of formal research.
expiration date

NIH Guide term for the date a funding opportunity announcement expires and moves to the archive. Expiration date differs from closing date. See the equivalent term: archive date.

Go to NIAID's Application portal.

exploratory/developmental research grant (R21)

NIH grant that funds novel scientific ideas, model systems, tools, agents, targets, and technologies that have the potential to substantially advance biomedical research.

R21s are not intended for new investigators, and there is no evidence that they provide a path to an independent research career. R21s are awarded for up to two years and are not renewable.

Go to these NIAID resources:

Also go to NIH's Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Award (R21).


Research supported by a grant or contract and administered by an NIAID extramural program division:

Also see intramural.

Go to NIAID's Extramural and Intramural Research questions and answers and NIAID Organizational Charts.

Extramural Program Management Committee NIH committee that helps define extramural policy, composed of heads of institute extramural administrative organizations, such as NIAID's Division of Extramural Activities.
Extramural Trainee Reporting And Career Tracking See xTRACT.

#   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Last Updated March 29, 2016

Last Reviewed April 02, 2012