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NIAID Glossary of Funding and Policy Terms and Acronyms—G

For Institute program-specific acronyms, go to NIAID Profile and Fact Book.

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Term Definition
GAO See Government Accountability Office.
GAVI Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. Go to GAVI.

Human subjects term indicating a classification of research subjects into women and men. In some cases, gender cannot be determined, e.g., for pooled blood samples.

Go to the NIAID Human Subjects Resources portal.

gene therapy Treatment of genetic disease by altering the genetic structure of either somatic or germline cells.
General Accounting Office See Government Accountability Office.
genome Organism's chromosomes containing genes and other DNA.
genome-wide association study (GWAS)

Research to study variation across the entire human genome to identify genetic associations with observable traits (such as blood pressure or weight) or the presence or absence of a disease or condition.

Applicants must include a plan to send GWAS data to NIH's Database of Genotype and Phenotype (dbGaP).

Go to NIAID's Data Sharing for Grants: Genome-Wide Association Studies SOP.

germline cell Cell that becomes egg or sperm.
GLP Good laboratory practice.
GMP See Grants Management Program.
GMP Good manufacturing practice.
Government Accountability Office (GAO)

Legislative Branch office that examines the use of public funds to help Congress ensure federal government accountability. GAO performs financial audits, program evaluations, analyses, investigations, and other services.

GAO was formerly the General Accounting Office. Go to GAO and GAO Reports.

government-furnished property Items the government possesses or acquires and provides a contractor. Go to FAR 45.101 and NIAID's Contracts portal.

Financial assistance award from NIH for peer reviewed research. The grantee is responsible for the research with little or no direct government involvement. Investigators have a lot of leeway in the direction of their research.

NIH generally awards grants to institutions, which must comply with all terms and conditions of award. See Notice of Award and cooperative agreement.

Go to these NIAID resources:

grant anniversary date

Based on a grant's start date, the basis for funding noncompeting and renewal awards. NIAID cannot fund these awards before their anniversary date. See grant start date.

grant appeal

HHS provision for a grantee institution to address an administrative decision about a grant by an NIH institute.

There are two levels: an informal NIH procedure and a formal HHS procedure. A grantee must first exhaust the informal process before appealing to the HHS Appeals Board. Differs from appeal of peer review.

Go to HHS and HHS Appeals Board.

grant application

Application for financial assistance from a Public Health Service agency to fund biomedical or behavioral research, using the grant application package.

Go to these NIAID resources:

Grant Application Guide

See SF 424 Application Guide.

grant application package

Forms applicants complete in response to a funding opportunity announcement.

Each opportunity has its own package, which includes forms called SF 424 R&R and PHS 398, and uses the instructions in an SF 424 Application Guide.

Go to these NIAID resources:

Go to NIH's SF 424 Application Guides.

grant budget period Interval into which a grant project period is divided for funding and reporting purposes, usually 12 months. See grant anniversary date and grant start date.
grant closeout

Procedure to officially conclude a grant within 120 days after it ends. NIAID staff determine whether administrative actions and required work are complete. Also called bilateral closeout. Compare with unilateral closeout

Using eRA Commons, a grantee uploads a final Federal Financial Report, final progress report for grants, and final invention statement (HHS 568), including any inventions reported previously for that award.

Go to these resources:

grant compliance review Evaluation by a grants management specialist to assess an institution's business and financial management systems to ensure that grantees follow grant regulations and policies.
grant out year

Year following the first year of funding of a grant's competitive segment, during which a principal investigator applies for a noncompeting award.

Go to these NIAID resources:

grant project period

Total period a project has been recommended for support, which may include more than one competitive segment. For example, a project period for a grant begun in 2014 can be divided into these competitive segments: 2014 to 2018, 2018 to 2022, and 2022 to 2026.

grant rebudgeting

Ability of grantees to move funds from one budget category to another without prior approval from NIH when there is no change of scope. For nonmodular grants, permission is required for some items.

Go to these NIAID resources in the Strategy for NIH Funding:

grant start date

Official date a grant begins; same as the first day of the first grant budget period. Also see grant anniversary date.

grant type See application type and activity code.
grantee Institution receiving a grant or cooperative agreement, which assumes legal, financial, and scientific responsibility for the funds and research. For some awards, e.g., fellowships, the grantee may be a person. See principal investigator and applicant.
Grants Management Program (GMP)

NIAID organization in the Division of Extramural Activities that oversees the business aspects of grants.

Go to NIAID's GMP Contacts.

grants management officer

NIAID staff member who ensures that both the granting agency and grantees meet all requirements of laws, regulations, and policies.

Go to NIAID's GMP Contacts.

grants management specialist

NIAID staff member working in the Grants Management Program who interprets and applies grant policies and is the focal point for all business and policy activities, including negotiation, award, and administration of grants and cooperative agreements.

Go to these resources:

Grants Policy Statement

See NIH Grants Policy Statement.

Site through which applicants find and apply for grants from many federal agencies. Go to

gray zone

Overall impact score or percentile that falls just outside a payline. NIAID defers making a funding decision for those applications until the end of the fiscal year.

Go to these NIAID resources:

Green Card See Alien Registration Receipt Card.
GWAS See genome-wide association study.
Guide for Grants and Contracts See NIH Guide.

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Last Updated March 29, 2016

Last Reviewed April 24, 2012