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NIAID Glossary of Funding and Policy Terms and Acronyms—R

For Institute program-specific acronyms, go to NIAID Profile and Fact Book.

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Term Definition
R&D contract

See contract, R&D.

R&R forms for electronic application See Research and Related Budget component form and the other R&R forms that follow it.

Standard NIH research project grant.

Go to NIAID's R01 Investigator Resources and NIH's Research Project Grant Program (R01).


See small grant (R03).


See conference grant (R13).


See exploratory/developmental research grant (R21).

R34, Clinical Trial Planning Grant

See Investigator-Initiated Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Awards.

R56-Bridge award

Interim award that lets principal investigators continue research while reapplying for an R01 grant or enables new investigators to gather preliminary data to improve their grant applications. Investigators do not apply for these awards; they are selected from R01 applications at the payline margin.

R56-Bridge award recipients receive one year of funding, which ends after they succeed in obtaining an R01 or after one year.

Go to these NIAID resources:

RAC See rDNA Advisory Committee (RAC).
racial and ethnic category

Human subjects term defined by the Office of Management and Budget and used by NIH to allow comparisons to national databases. Also see subpopulation.

rating criteria

See initial peer review criteria.


See Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization.


See Research Centers in Minority Institutions.


See recombinant DNA.

rDNA Advisory Committee (RAC)

NIH chartered advisory committee and public forum for dealing with the use of recombinant DNA.

Go to About Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) for more information.

reader for peer review

Peer reviewer who serves as a backup for a primary peer reviewer and secondary peer reviewer. A reader reads a grant application thoroughly before an initial peer review meeting but does not usually prepare a written critique.

Go to NIAID's SROs Assess Completeness, Assign Reviewers in the Strategy for NIH Funding.


See grant rebudgeting.


See appeal.

receipt date

For applications, the due date for a funding opportunity announcement. Differs from closing date.

Investigator-initiated applications have three receipt dates (except NIAID's training grants, due September 25 for non-AIDS and January 7 for AIDS-related applications). Applications and proposals responding to initiatives are due on the date stated in the Guide.

Go to these resources:

receipt, referral, and assignment of applications

Routing of grant applications arriving at NIH. The referral section of the Center for Scientific Review is the central receipt point for competing applications.

CSR referral officers assign each application to an NIH institute and refer it to an integrated review group using NIH referral criteria. Alternatively, NIH encourages principal investigators to self-assign.

Go to these resources:

recent substantial service

Service as a regular, temporary, or ad hoc peer reviewer at least six times during the eighteen-month period that ends on June 30 of each year. See also continuous submission.

For more information, read NIH's Frequently Asked Questions on continuous submission.

recombinant DNA

Molecules that are either constructed outside living cells by joining natural or synthetic DNA segments to DNA molecules that can replicate in a living cell or DNA resulting from that replication.

See institutional biosafety committee and restricted experiment.

Go to the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules.


1. Designation by a scientific review group that a grant application merits funding. As a result of the initial peer review, it receives a summary statement and overall impact score, the primary basis for a funding decision by NIAID.

Roughly the top half of applications reviewed are recommended for funding, although a much smaller proportion is actually funded, largely due to budget contraints. See not recommended for further consideration, payline, streamlined review, and not discussed.

2. Action resulting from second-level review by an institute's advisory Council recommending funding for an application based on scientific merit, program priorities and balance, and a lack of barriers such as human subjects issues.

Go to these NIAID resources in the Strategy for NIH Funding:

recommended level of future support

Funding level recommended for each year of a nonmodular budget by a scientific review group. The actual amount is subject to NIAID's annual financial management plan and scientific progress (for a renewal). See escalation factor.

Go to NIAID's Financial Management Plan.

recompeting renewal

See renewal.

reconciliation bill

Bill containing changes in law recommended in the instructions of a budget resolution. If instructions pertain to only one committee, that committee reports the reconciliation bill.

If the instructions pertain to more than one committee, the Budget Committee reports an omnibus reconciliation bill, but it may not make substantive changes to recommendations of the other committees.

Go to NIAID's Funding Opportunity Planning and the Budget Cycle.

reduced to practice

State in which an inventor has specified an invention in words, drawings, or other means so anyone familiar with the field would be able to make, implement, or perform the invention. It does not mean the inventor has made or performed the invention.


See receipt, referral, and assignment of applications.

reimbursable agreement

Legal commitment by a government agency to reimburse another agency for goods or services, e.g., interagency and intra-agency agreements.

relatedness of adverse event to an intervention

Principal investigator's best estimate of the causal relationship between an intervention and an adverse event.

Go to NIH's Adverse Event Reports.

release date

NIH Guide term for the date a funding opportunity announcement is posted on and in the Guide. The release date may be earlier than the open date, so principal investigators can begin working on the application. See the equivalent term posted date.


Grant application that must undergo initial peer review to continue the funding of a research project. See application type.

Go to these NIAID resources:


See alterations and renovations.


Reallocation of unused balances from an extramural program division's set-aside funds (for initiatives, selective pay, R56-Bridge awards) to other high-priority areas. Also see reprogramming.

Go to NIAID's Lock icon: This link will not work for public visitors.Repooling and Reprogramming SOP.


See Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool.


RePORT Expenditures and Results Tool, part of Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT).

representations and certifications

Required statements by an offeror or contractor that must accompany federal contracts and proposals, such as details of its accounting procedures and compliance with small business and trade agreements.

reproducibility See rigor and reproducibility.

Reallocation of funds between grant mechanisms or from a contract to a grant, which must be approved by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Management and Budget, and Congress. Also see reprogramming.

Go to NIAID'sLock icon: This link will not work for public visitors.Repooling and Reprogramming SOP.

request for applications (RFA)

Initiative sponsored by one or more NIH institutes or centers that stimulates targeted research by requesting grant applications in a well-defined scientific area.

RFAs have a single receipt date and identify funds set aside and the number of grants likely to be made. Institutes publish RFAs in the NIH Guide and in as funding opportunity announcements. Also see program announcement (PA).

Go to these NIAID resources:

request for contracts

See acquisition plan.

request for information

Notice used to obtain price, delivery, market information, or capabilities for an institute's planning purposes. May be used by the government to collect information before it plans to award a contract.

Go to NIAID's Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information section 15.201e of the Federal Acquisition Regulation.

request for proposals (RFP)

Initiative sponsored by an NIH institute to request proposals for a contract to meet a specific need, such as the development of an animal model.

RFPs are a type of solicitation. They have a single receipt date and are published in and sometimes in the NIH Guide.

Compare with broad agency announcement (BAA).

Go to these resources:

requirements contract

Contract that provides for purchasing supplies or services during a period of performance, with deliverables scheduled by the government placing orders with a contractor.

Go FAR 16.503.


Congressional bill that requires a federal agency to return appropriated funds. A rescission may be passed to meet unforeseen expenses or prevent government overspending.


1. Search to achieve new or fuller knowledge or to practically apply knowledge.

2. Human subjects term for a systematic investigation, including development, testing, and evaluation to develop generalizable knowledge.

Go 45 CFR 46.102 and full 45 CFR 46.

research and development (R&D)

Research—search to achieve new or fuller knowledge or practically apply knowledge.

Development—use of knowledge gained from research to create useful materials or methods.

Research and Related Budget Component form

Form for nonmodular budgets in the Grant Application Package.

Depending on the funding opportunity announcement and use of a subaward, investigators may need to use the Research and Related Subaward Budget Attachment.

Also see modular budget and PHS 398 Modular Budget form.

Go to these resources:

Research and Related Other Project Information form

Form in the Grant Application Package that includes information on human subjects and research animals and attachments for Project Narrative, Project Summary/Abstract, Bibliography and References Cited, Facilities and Other Resources, and other documents.

See Grant Application Package.

Go to these resources:

Research and Related Project/Performance Site Locations form

Form for grant applications that has identifying information on the project sites. See Grant Application Package.

Go to NIH's SF424 (R&R) Application Guides.

Research and Related Senior/Key Person Profile form


Research and Related Senior/Key Person Profile Expanded form


Form for grant applications that includes information on the principal investigator and key personnel, the eRA Commons ID field (called agency login), and biographical sketch fields and attachments.

Some Grant Application Packages have an expanded version that accommodates more key personnel.

Go to these resources:

research animal

See animals in research.

research center grant

Multiproject grant in the P series supporting shared resources, called cores, for a multidisciplinary research group of investigators focused on a common research topic.

Go to NIAID's Other Grant Types portal and Guidance for Preparing a Multiproject Research Application.

Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI)

National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities program that enhances research capacity and infrastructure at minority institutions that offer doctorates in health sciences.

Go to NIMHD Research Centers in Minority Institutions Program.

Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization (RCDC)

System NIH uses to report annually to Congress and the public the amount of money allocated to a list of research topics of congressional and public interest. See RePORT.

Go to Reporting Considerations When Writing Your Application.

research data, final

See final research data.

Research Initiative Committee (RIC)

Committee comprising Institute executives and their representatives who review concepts before their evaluation by NIAID's main advisory Council for concept clearance and development into funding opportunity announcements.

Go to these NIAID resources:

research integrity officer (RIO)

Institute or center official who represents an IC for research integrity policy.

The RIO also notifies an agency extramural research integrity officer about allegations of research misconduct for biomedical or behavioral research or research training supported by the Public Health Service.

Go to NIAID's Allegations of Research Misconduct SOP.

research misconduct

Fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from accepted practices in proposing, performing, or reporting research.

  • Fabrication—making up data or results.
  • Falsification—manipulating research resources or processes, or changing or omitting data or results to make the research record inaccurate.
  • Plagiarism—appropriating another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving credit.

Also see the converse, responsible conduct of research.

Research misconduct does not include honest errors or differences of opinion. See Office of Research Integrity, PHS Alert System, and research integrity officer (RIO).

Go to NIAID's Bars to Grant Awards—Research Misconduct and Allegations of Research Misconduct SOPs.

Research Performance Progress Report (RPPR)

PHS form for reporting grantee accomplishments and compliance with terms and conditions of award on a noncompeting grant. Program officers and grants management specialists review to make sure projects are proceeding as planned.

Grantees submit the RPPR through the eRA Commons for progress reporting.

For more information, go to these resources:

Research Plan

Main part of an NIH grant application describing the objectives and importance of a principal investigator's proposed research and how the research will be conducted.

Typically, the Research Plan comprises the following sections:

Go to NIAID's Strategy to Write the Research Plan in the Strategy for NIH Funding.

Research Plan, PHS 398

See PHS 398 Research Plan form (for electronic grant applications).

research portfolio

Cohort of grants supported by an NIH organization and administered by an institute program officer.

Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT)

Repository of reports, data, analyses, and tools such as RePORTER for searching a database of NIH-funded grants and contracts that includes financial data, project abstracts, and research results. See Research, Condition, and Disease Categorization.


research project grant

Budget term referring to the following grant types: R01, R03, R15, R21, R22, R23, R33, R34, R35, R36, R37, R55, R56, RC1, P01, P42, PN1, U01, U19, UC1 (NIAID does not use all of them).

RPGs are research grants awarded to an institution.

Unlike a multiproject award, a single project award addresses one research topic even if it involves several sites.

Go to NIAID's Grants portal.

Research Strategy

Part of the Research Plan of an NIH grant application describing the importance and innovation potential of a principal investigator's proposed research and how it will be conducted.

The Research Strategy comprises these sections:

Go to Write the Research Strategy in NIAID's Strategy for NIH Funding.

research supplement

Money added to an existing grant to support and promote underrepresented groups, people returning to work from family responsibilities, and those with primary caregiver responsibilities. See supplement.

Go to these NIAID resources:

research supplement, primary caregiver

See Primary Caregiver Technical Assistance Supplement.

research supplement for reentry into a research career

Monies added to an existing grant to support scientists who have taken time off to care for children or parents, or attend to other family responsibilities.

Go to these NIAID resources:

research supplement to promote diversity in health-related research

Monies added to an existing grant to support graduate students from underrepresented groups, postdocs, and faculty.

Go to these NIAID resources:

research using human specimens or data

Human subjects research involving individually identifiable human specimens or data and subject to federal and state regulatory requirements. For example, this would include research on living persons using:

  • Bodily materials such as cells, blood, urine, tissues, organs, hair or nail clippings, even if collected by others.
  • Residual diagnostic specimens, including those from routine patient care, that are kept for research rather than discarded.
  • Private information, such as medical or genetic information, even if collected for another study.

Go to these resources:

resetting a grant start date

Process NIAID uses in some fiscal years to shorten a grant's budget period by giving it a new grant anniversary date, generally to avoid having too many awards start at the end of a fiscal year.

Resetting a grant's start date may affect when a grantee would submit a renewal application.

resolution, budget

See budget resolution.

resolution, continuing

See continuing resolution.

resources page

Form describing all essential resources in a grant application.

The Facilities and Other Resources attachment is on the Research and Related Budget Other Project Information form.

Go to these resources:

responsible conduct of research

Practice of scientific investigation with integrity, i.e., the awareness and application of established professional norms and ethical principles in performing scientific research.

Also see the converse, research misconduct.

Go to NIAID's Responsible Conduct of Research: Training SOP.

restricted experiment

Select agent-related term for an experiment that:

1) Uses recombinant DNA to deliberately transfer a drug-resistance trait to a select agent not known to acquire the trait naturally if the trait could compromise the use of a drug to control disease in humans, veterinary medicine, or agriculture.

2) Deliberately creates recombinant DNA-containing genes for the biosynthesis of toxins lethal to vertebrates with an LD50 of 100 ng/Kg or less of body weight.

Go to 42 CFR 73.13 and NIAID's Select Agent Awards SOP.


Special term and condition in a Notice of Award or article in a contract that does one of the following:

A restriction may be lifted or adjusted after requirements are met. See bar to award.

Go to these NIAID SOPs:


Grant application resubmitted to NIH after a principal investigator whose application did not succeed revises it based on feedback from the initial peer review. Resubmissions are indicated in the application identification number as A1.

Go to these NIAID resources:

review committee chairperson

Member of an NIH initial peer review committee who facilitates discussions of grant applications and contract proposals during the review.

Go to NIAID's Basic Layout of a Peer Review Meeting in the Strategy for NIH Funding.

review criteria

See initial peer review criteria.

review cycle

Time span for one NIH Center for Scientific Review initial peer review round from the receipt of grant applications to the date of an initial peer review meeting. There are three cycles a year for investigator-initiated grants.

Go to these resources:

review outcome letter

Formerly used term. NIH no longer mails review outcomes to principal investigators or their organizations. Instead, they find the information in the Commons.

Review Policy Committee

NIH committee of senior review staff that advises NIH on initial peer review issues. It has one voting member from each institute and several from the NIH Center for Scientific Review.

Go to NIAID's NIH—Organization and Process questions and answers.


See peer reviewer.

reviewer critique

See critique.


Application to add funds to a grant to expand its scope or meet needs of a research protocol. Applicants must apply and undergo peer review.

Formerly called competing supplement; the former term revision is now resubmission. Also see supplement.

Go to NIAID's Revision of a Grant SOP.


See request for applications.


See acquisition plan.


See request for information.


See request for proposals.


See Research Initiative Committee.

rigor and reproducibility

Ensuring robust and unbiased results through strict application of the scientific method. Addressed by principal investigators in grant applications and progress reports for grants.

Go to NIH's Rigor and Reproducibility.


See research integrity officer (RIO).


Probability of harm or physical, psychological, social, or economic injury resulting from participation in a research study.


See Review Policy Committee.


See research project grant.

RPPR See Research Performance Progress Report (RPPR).

Now called research supplement to promote diversity in health-related research.

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Last Updated March 29, 2016

Last Reviewed May 08, 2012