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NIAID Glossary of Funding and Policy Terms and Acronyms—U

For Institute program-specific acronyms, go to NIAID Profile and Fact Book.

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Term Definition
unacceptable proposal

Contract proposal judged by a technical evaluation group to fail to satisfy minimum requirements of a solicitation without significant revisions.

Go to NIAID's Lock icon: This link will not work for public visitors.Peer Review of R&D Contract Technical Proposals SOP.

unallowable cost

Cost that cannot be included in a price, cost-reimbursement, or settlement under a government contract. Go to FAR 31.001.

unanticipated adverse device effect

Unanticipated serious adverse effect on health or safety related to the rights, safety, or welfare of subjects associated with an investigational medical device.

Go to 21 CFR 812.3 and full 21 CFR 812.

unauthorized commitment

Order for supplies or services placed by agency employees or contracting officers that exceed their authorized dollar limit.

underrepresented group

Group underrepresented in biomedical research, defined as:

For further details, read the January 12, 2015 Guide notice.

Underrepresented status is used as eligibility for some NIH programs—see below. See the human subjects definition of minority group.

Go to NIH's Research and Training Opportunities and these NIAID resources:

undue influence

Improper pressure or coercion to shape a person's thoughts or and actions, depriving that person's freedom of choice. Human subjects protections prevent investigators from using such measures to enroll people in research. See informed consent.

Go to 45 CFR 46.116 general requirements for informed consent and 21 CFR 50.20.

unexpected adverse event

Adverse event not described in labels, brochures, published medical literature, protocols, or consent documents.

Go to NIAID Clinical Terms of Award and NIH's Adverse Event Reports.

unilateral closeout

Process for grant closeout when NIAID has not received acceptable final reports. Final reports are due within 120 days after the grant project period end date.

Go to File Your Final Reports at Award End in the Strategy for NIH Funding.

unipotent stem cell

Stem cell that can differentiate into a single type of endoderm, ectoderm, or mesoderm cell. Compare with totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, and oligopotent stem cells.

unliquidated obligation

Expenses agreed to but not paid for by the end of a grant's budget period.

In the Federal Financial Report for a final budget period, unliquidated obligations must be zero.

unobligated balance

Funds not used by the completion of a grant's project period. Grantees must report unobligated balances over 25 percent of total costs to their grants management specialist.

Grants awarded under expanded authorities may carry over unobligated funds from one budget period to another within an approved project period without prior approval, as stated in the Notice of Award.

Go to NIAID's Using Leftover Funds in the Grants Policy and Management Training for Foreign Investigators.


Formerly used term. See not discussed.

unsolicited proposal

Written proposal to obtain a contract with the government that offerors submit on their own initiative rather than respond to a request for proposals or other government solicitation.

Go to FAR 15.602 and the official definition in FAR 2.101.

unsolicited research

Research funded after an investigator submits a research grant application on a topic of his or her choice, including applications responding to program announcements. See investigator-initiated research and parent program announcement; see the converse, targeted research.

Go to NIH's Parent Announcements and these NIAID resources:

USA Patriot Act

Public law to deter and punish terrorism inside and outside the U.S. and provide investigatory and other tools. These include restricting access to select agents, described in SEC. 175b. Possession by Restricted Persons. See dual use research.

Go to these resources:


U.S. Agency for International Development provides economic, development, and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of U.S. foreign policy goals. Go to USAID.


See U.S. Department of Agriculture.

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Federal government agency with programs for food, agriculture, natural resources, and related topics. USDA implements the Animal Welfare Act and regulates the study of pathogens and toxins for livestock and plants.

CDC in HHS and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in USDA administer the National Select Agents Registry.

For select agent-related information, see select agent. Go to USDA.

U.S. Public Health Service

See Public Health Service.

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Last Updated October 22, 2015

Last Reviewed May 01, 2012