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NIAID Glossary of Funding and Policy Terms and Acronyms—D

For Institute program-specific acronyms, go to NIAID Profile and Fact Book.

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Term Definition
DAG See Director's Advisory Group.
DAIDS See Division of AIDS.
DAIT See Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation.
data and safety monitoring board (DSMB)

Independent committee that reviews a clinical trial's progress and safety and advises NIAID whether to continue, modify, or terminate it. DSMBs are one of several clinical trial monitoring options.

Go to these NIAID resources on the NIAID Human Subjects Resources portal:

data, final research See final research data.
data security

Means for keeping sensitive information safe from corruption, theft, or unauthorized access; applies to written, typed, and electronic data.

Go to NIAID's Data Security SOP.

data sharing

Policy requiring researchers requesting $500,000 or more in direct costs in any year to share final research data. Applicants must include a data sharing plan in their grant application or explain why data sharing is not possible.

NIH's genome-wide association study requirement is part of its data sharing policy.

Go to these NIAID resources:

Data Universal Number System (DUNS)

See DUNS number.

DCC See direct CAN citation.
DEA See Division of Extramural Activities.

Contracting phase performed either orally or in writing to provide offerors the rationale for a source selection decision; does not include point-by-point comparisons of offerors' contract proposals.

Go to NIAID's Contracts portal.


1. Postponed initial peer review of a grant application by a scientific review group, often to the next review cycle, because information is missing. NIAID's advisory Council may also recommend deferral of an application.

2. Postponed funding decision by NIAID for applications that rank beyond the payline until the end of a fiscal year, including some selective pay applications. NIAID funds selective pay applications first and then others in percentile or overall impact score order until using up the money for that fiscal year. See gray zone.

Go to these NIAID resources:

delayed onset of human subjects research

Describes research that can be awarded without institutional review board review because it lacks immediate plans for involving human subjects, though they may be involved later.

Go to NIAID's Human Subjects Certifications: IRB or IEC SOP on the NIAID Human Subjects Resources portal.


Report or product a contractor must deliver to the government to satisfy contractual requirements.

Go to NIAID's Contract Deliverables and Reporting Requirements SOP on the Contracts portal.

demonstration Study of the feasibility of disseminating or applying research and development findings.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)

Federal government department to which NIH belongs whose mission is to protect the health of Americans and provide essential human services. Go to HHS.


See Project Summary/Abstract and Project Narrative.

detailed budget

Type of budget used for grant applications that do not use a modular budget, requiring an itemized listing of direct costs.

Also known as categorical budget.

Go to NIAID's Plan Your Budget in the Strategy for NIH Funding.

Detailed Budget for Initial Budget Period


For applications, see Research and Related Budget component form.

For smaller budgets, see modular budget.

Go to NIAID's Plan Your Budget in the Strategy for NIH Funding.

detailed cost analysis

Contracting analysis by a contracting officer to determine whether an offeror's proposed costs are fair and reasonable.

For a legal description, see FAR 15.404 and NIAID's Contracts portal.


Exception to an NIH grant regulation, policy, or procedure that NIAID approves when highly beneficial to either NIH or a project's scientific goals or cost management. See waiver.

Go to NIAID's Deviations and Waivers to Grant Policies SOP.

device See medical device.
DHHS See Department of Health and Human Services.
DIR See Division of Intramural Research.
direct CAN citation

Policy that simplifies formal agreements between two or more NIH institutes or centers or between NIH and an outside agency that uses the NIH Central Accounting System. See Common Accounting Number.

direct costs

Costs in a grant or contract that support a project or program. Allowable direct costs include:

Compare with facilities and administrative costs.

Go to these NIAID resources in the Strategy for NIH Funding:

direct operations Funds for salary and other administrative costs. See direct costs.
Director's Advisory Group (DAG)

NIAID committee that advises on funding decisions for training, fellowship, career development, conference grant, and small business awards, based on initial peer review results and the recommendation of NIAID's advisory Council.

DAG also serves as an NIAID advisory board on research training issues.


Having a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.


Lacking the usual necessities of life; a requirement for being part of an underrepresented group that includes the following:

  • Annual family income below established low-income thresholds, based on family size.
  • A rural, inner-city, or other environment that has inhibited a person from getting the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for a research career.

Disadvantaged is different from socially and economically disadvantaged.

Go to HHS's Poverty Guidelines, Research, and Measurement.


Selection by an NIH institute for funding of one or two research projects from a multiproject (P series or U19) grant application, although the parent grant did not fare well enough in initial peer review to warrant an award.

Go to NIAID's Lock icon: This link will not work for public visitors. Disaggregation SOP.

disclosure permission statement

Section of PHS 398 Checklist form where applicants choose whether the government may disclose the title of their project and contact information for their institution's signing official if their grant application does not receive funding.


Any oral or written communication between the government and a contract offeror, other than a minor clarification, which enables a contracting officer to determine whether a proposal is acceptable or allows an offeror to revise it.

For a legal description, see FAR 15.6 and NIAID's Contracts portal.

division See NIAID division.
Division of AIDS (DAIDS) NIAID division for extramural programs supporting research of AIDS. Go to DAIDS and DAIDS Contacts.
Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation (DAIT)

NIAID division for extramural programs supporting research of allergy, immunology, and transplantation.

Go to DAIT and DAIT Contacts.

Division of Clinical Research (DCR)

NIAID division that provides and supports services for research infrastructure, including program planning and management, regulatory monitoring and compliance, consulting in statistics and research methodology, and building research capacity for NIAID's domestic and international clinical research programs.

DCR also performs clinical research oversight and management for the Division of Intramural Research.

Go to Division of Clinical Research and Division of Clinical Research Contacts.

Division of Extramural Activities (DEA)

NIAID division for extramural administration and policy that does the following:

See Scientific Review Program, Grants Management Program, and Office of Acquisitions.

Go to these resources:

Division of Intramural Research (DIR)

NIAID division for intramural programs conducting a wide range of in-house research related to the mission of NIAID.

Go to Division of Intramural Research and Division of Intramural Research Contacts.

Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID)

NIAID division for extramural programs supporting research of microbiology and infectious diseases other than AIDS.

Go to Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and DMID Contacts.

DMID See Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
domestic Located in the 50 states or the following: District of Columbia, U.S. territories and possessions, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
drug discovery Identification of new drug targets and leads for treatments or preventions either by identifying molecules with desired biological effects or by screening agents using an indicator system to show efficacy.
drug sponsor Person or entity responsible for marketing a new drug. See sponsor.
DSMB See data and safety monitoring board.
dual assignment

Assignment of a grant application to two NIH institutes. The primary institute accepts an application as well as awards and administers the funded grant, but the secondary institute assumes this responsibility if the primary institute decides not to support it.

Go to these NIAID resources:

dual peer review

Peer review process used by NIH. The first level, initial peer review, provides a judgment of scientific merit.

Generally conducted by an institute's advisory council, second-level review makes funding recommendations in the context of program priorities and balance. See scientific review group, integrated review group, and NIAID Council.

Go to these NIAID resources:

dual use research

Biological research conducted for legitimate purposes that could be misused to pose a threat to public health or national security. See select agent and USA Patriot Act.

Go to NIH's Dual Use Research.

DUNS number

Identifier government vendors need to have before they can apply for a federal grant. Also a requirement for institutions who wish to receive a subaward from a grantee.

Go to Data Universal Number System (DUNS) on Registration Instructions for Domestic and Foreign Organizations.

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Last Updated March 29, 2016

Last Reviewed April 16, 2012