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NIAID Glossary of Funding and Policy Terms and Acronyms—O

For Institute program-specific acronyms, go to NIAID Profile and Fact Book.

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Term Definition

1. Binding financial commitment in a congressional budget appropriation. Obligations include grants, contracts, administrative costs, and purchases of goods and services.

2. Legal commitment to spend grant or contract funds.


Human subjects term meaning to receive or access individually identifiable human data or specimens including those already in an investigator's possession.


See Office of Extramural Research.


Response to a contract solicitation that would bind an offeror to fulfill a contract.


Contracting term denoting an organization responding to a request for proposals.

Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP)

HHS office that oversees human subjects protection for HHS-supported research. Go to Office for Human Research Protections.

Office of Acquisitions (OA)

NIAID organization in the Division of Extramural Activities that oversees contracts. Go to NIAID's Contracts portal.

Office of Extramural Research (OER)

NIH office that oversees policies and guidelines for extramural research grants. Go to OER.

Office of Financial Management (OFM)

NIH budget office. Go to Office of Financial Management.

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW)

NIH office that oversees compliance with the PHS policy on the humane care and use of laboratory animals.

For guidance, go to these resources from the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare:

Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

Executive Branch office that assists the U.S. president in preparing the federal budget, evaluating agency programs and policies, and setting funding priorities.

In setting policy, OMB issues government-wide policy directives, called circulars, that apply to grants.

Go to OMB and OMB's Grants Management Circulars.

Office of Research Integrity (ORI)

HHS office that promotes integrity in biomedical and behavioral research supported by the Public Health Service by monitoring institutional investigations of research misconduct and facilitating the responsible conduct of research.

Go to ORI and NIAID's Allegations of Research Misconduct SOP.

Office of Technology Transfer (OTT)

NIH office that manages the NIH invention portfolio and oversees NIH technology transfer. See technology transfer. Go to OTT.


Use of an unspent portion of a current year's budget to fund a future budget period.


See Office of Financial Management.


See Office for Human Research Protections.

OHRP Federalwide Assurance

See Federalwide Assurance.


See Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare.

oligopotent stem cell

Stem cell that can differentiate into a few types of endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm cells. Compare with multipotent, pluripotent, totipotent, and unipotent stem cells.


See Office of Management and Budget.

OMB circular

Administrative standard published by the Office of Management and Budget. Go to OMB's Grants Management Circulars.

OMB Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review

Requirement that agencies conduct peer review of certain publications before publishing influential scientific information that may affect important public policies or private sector decisions.

Go to Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review in the Federal Register.

open date

Earliest date a grant application may be submitted to; different from the posted date and release date. Even though a funding opportunity announcement is posted, it may not be open for applications.


Contract clause giving an agency a right to extend a contract term or obtain more products or services at prices in the contract.

organizational conflict of interest for contracts

Activity or relationship that could interfere with a contractor's ability to assist or advise an agency. Go to NIAID's Contracts portal.


See Office of Research Integrity.


NIAID Office of Research Training and Special Programs, DEA.

Go to these NIAID resources:

Other Project Information, Research and Related

See Research and Related Other Project Information.

other research

Budget category that includes:

Compare with research project grant. For more on these activity codes, go to NIAID's Other Grant Types portal.

other significant contributor

Participants in a grant or application who contribute substantively to the project with an indefinite level of effort. Applications should include biosketches but not other support information. Also see key personnel.

other support

All financial resources—federal, non-federal, commercial, or institutional—that support a principal investigator's research, including research grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts, but not training-type awards, prizes, and gifts.

Applicants must submit other support information for all key personnel to NIH just-in-time following the sample in the SF 424 Application Guide.

Applicants must NOT submit current and pending support with the application (using the attachment on the Research and Related Senior/Key Person Profile form from

Go to these NIAID resources:


See Office of Technology Transfer, NIH.

out year

See grant out year.


Amount of money the government spends for a federally funded program in a year. Outlays are used as a measurement of government spending.

outreach strategy

Human subjects term indicating efforts to recruit and retain populations of interest (racial and ethnic categories and subpopulations, and women) into clinical research studies.

overall impact/priority score

Average of individual ratings of overall merit given by all reviewers of a scientific review group during initial peer review. Formerly called priority score.

Overall impact/priority score quantifies the reviewers' assessment of a project's ability to powerfully influence its field. That assessment is made by considering the five core initial peer review criteria and any additional ones that apply.

Each reviewer scores in whole numbers: 1 is best, 9 worst. Reviewer scores are then averaged and rounded mathematically to one decimal place. Scores appear on a summary statement from 10 to 90. See criterion score and percentile.

Go to NIAID's Initial Peer Review in the Strategy for NIH Funding.

overlap of support

Other support that duplicates research or budgetary items already funded by an NIH grant. Overlap also occurs when any project-supported personnel has time commitments exceeding 12 person months.

Also see scientific overlap, budgetary overlap, and commitment overlap.

Go to NIAID's Prepare Your Other Support Submission in the Strategy for NIH Funding.

overlap, budgetary

See budgetary overlap.

overlap, commitment

See commitment overlap.

overlap, scientific

See scientific overlap.

overlap select agent

Select agent, regulated by both CDC in HHS and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in USDA, which has the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety, animal or plant health, or animal or plant product.

U.S. investigators who possess, use, or transfer an overlap select agent must register with and get approval from either CDC or APHIS.

As outlined in NIAID's standard operating procedure, both domestic and foreign institutions using select agents are subject to NIAID's select agent terms of award. NIAID also has special procedures for international awards.

Also see dual use research, NIAID category A, B, and C priority pathogen, National Select Agent Registry Program, and USA Patriot Act.

Go to these resources:

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Last Updated March 29, 2016

Last Reviewed April 27, 2012