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Topical Microbicides

The Microbicide Pipeline

There are a number of active components, including proteins, small molecule inhibitors, and natural products that are being developed as microbicide candidates. They include

  • Acid Buffers to maintain vaginal pH non-permissive for HIV and STI replication: BufferGel, Acidform
  • Natural Defense Molecules to bolster existing cervicovaginal defenses: Lactobacillus (engineered or naturally occurring), Defensins, Protegrins
  • Surfactants/Detergents to inactivate virus: C-31G (Savvy), SDS, Benzalkonium Chloride
  • Absorption Inhibitors to non-specifically or specifically block virus-cell association: Carraguard, Cellulose sulfate (Ushercell), Dextrin-2-sulfate (Emmelle), PRO2000
  • Entry Inhibitors to block gp120/CD4, gp41 and co-receptor interactions: SAMMA, PSC-RANTES, SCH-C, monoclonal antibodies, cyanovirin-N, β-cyclodextrin, Dendrimer SPL7013, T-20
  • Multiple Mechanisms of Action (Combine several HIV targets): Topical estrogens, Doxovir, Cellulose Acetate phthalate (CAP), OTC Lubricants
  • Reverse Transcriptase (RT) Inhibitors to block the transcription of HIV RNA to DNA: PMPA (Tenofovir), UC-781, Calanolide A, DABO, WHI-05, -07, TMC-120 (Dapivirine)
  • Zinc Finger Inhibitors to block HIV gag from packaging HIV genetic material into new virions: Azodicarbomamide, Thioesters, PATES, DIBAs
  • Uncharacterized Mechanism of Action: Praneen, Polyherbal vaginal tablet, Poke Antiviral protein (PAP)

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Last Updated July 18, 2006

Last Reviewed March 26, 2010