The majority of rotavirus disease is caused by five serotypes: G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9. Today, vaccines are available to protect against one or more of these different strains. The vaccines offer 90 to 100 percent protection against severe rotavirus diarrhea. Efficacy has been demonstrated primarily in the United States and Europe. Studies in low and middle income countries are needed because early evidence suggests the vaccine efficacy is lower than in high income countries.
NIAID-supported researchers are studying the two rotavirus vaccines licensed for infants in the United States: RotaTeq and Rotarix. According to current recommendations and depending on which vaccine is used, infants receive a series of two or three doses. In many cases, infants receive the same vaccine for all of their doses. In some situations, however, health care providers may switch from one product to the other to complete the vaccine series. In an NIAID-supported study, scientists are looking to see if switching from one vaccine product to another works as well as using the same vaccine for all of the doses.
A collaboration between NIAID, the government of India, Bharat Biotech International, and other partners resulted in ROTAVAC, the first rotavirus vaccine developed entirely in India. Based on the successful findings from studies fueled by this partnership, ROTAVAC obtained licensure in India in 2014.
Current research efforts are directed at improving the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines across more serotypes and further decreasing unwanted side effects of vaccination.
Efforts of NIAID Scientists Led to First Licensed Rotavirus Vaccine
Two-Dose Rotavirus Vaccine Regimen Initiated During Newborn Period Prevents Rotavirus Diarrhea
Last Updated June 24, 2015