Dr. Koup received a B.S. in Biophysics and a M.S. in Biochemistry from the University of Connecticut and his M.D. from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Koup did his internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the Rhode Island Hospital and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Dr. Koup has held appointments at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York University Medical Center, and the Rockefeller University. From 1997 to 2001 he was the Jay P. Sanford Professor, and Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. In 2001 Dr. Koup moved to the NIH to join the Vaccine Research Center as a tenured Senior Investigator and Chief of the Immunology Laboratory. Since 2013 he has also served as Deputy Director of the Vaccine Research Center.
Dr. Koup studies the protective role of HIV-specific cellular immunity. His major discoveries include defining the temporal association between the first appearance of cytotoxic T cells and the decline in viremia during acute infection, delineating the role of the thymus in HIV pathogenesis, showing that HIV specific CD4+ T cells are preferentially infected and depleted by HIV, determining that the quality, not just the quantity, of the T cell response to HIV is crucial for maintaining control over HIV replication, and he has defined the critical role of follicular T helper cells in the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.
Dr. Koup has trained over 35 pre- and post-doctoral students and co-authored over 300 papers on HIV and related topics. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals, and as a section editor for PLoS Pathogens. Dr. Koup is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and has been elected to the American Society of Clinical Investigation (ASCI) and the Association of American Physicians (AAP).