Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious and often severe airborne disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria. TB typically affects the lungs, but it also can affect any other organ of the body. It is usually treated with a regimen of drugs taken for six months to two years depending on the type of infection.
Why is the study of Tuberculosis (TB) a priority for NIAID?:
Tuberculosis is one of the major causes of disability and death worldwide. More than 95 percent of TB deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, according to the World Health Organization. In 2014, 9.6 million people became ill with TB, and 1.5 million people died from the disease. TB is a leading cause of death for people infected with HIV. In 2015, 1 in 3 HIV deaths was due to TB. Globally in 2014, an estimated 480,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB).
How is NIAID addressing this critical topic?:
By developing animal models for TB, the Institute is accelerating efforts to evaluate candidate drugs and vaccines and to improve TB diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies. NIAID also supports research to assess what factors influence the occurrence, distribution, and transmission of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Mtb.
NIAID supports basic research on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, and seeks to understand how the bacterium causes disease in humans. By developing animal models for TB, the Institute is accelerating efforts to evaluate candidate drugs and vaccines and to improve TB diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies. NIAID also supports research to assess what factors influence the occurrence, distribution, and transmission of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Mtb.
Scientists are studying how the TB bacterium evades the immune system to infect people, how it can lay dormant for years and become active at a later stage in life, and why people can have TB disease more than once in their lives. This knowledge will help to find ways to develop vaccines that are able to prime the immune system to recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis, prevent it from infecting people, or prevent latent infections from progressing to active TB disease.
NIAID supports the development of new and improved diagnostic tools to more accurately diagnose early TB disease, help optimize therapy by identifying drug-resistant strains, and track the spread of TB in a community. The Institute also encourages researchers to develop tools and identify biomarkers that allow clinicians to rapidly assess how people respond to therapy and to assist in conducting drug and vaccine clinical trials.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB and, more recently, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB has intensified the need for new TB drugs. Helping discover and develop those drugs is a top NIAID priority. The Institute supports research to elucidate the mechanisms of drug resistance, identify new TB drug targets and candidate drugs, and evaluate novel TB drugs and optimal drug combinations in preclinical and clinical studies.
A Timely Test: All-in-One Cartridge Speeds TB Detection
To address the need for rapid diagnosis, scientists developed a test to identify multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. The testing method is essentially a biotech lab in a small plastic cartridge.
Tuberculosis (TB) Infection, Disease and Drug Resistance
A detailed explanation of the difference between Mtb Infection and TB disease, and understand multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB).
Latest News Releases
NIH-Funded Researchers Find Signs TB Can Persist in Lungs Despite Treatment, September 6, 2016
NIH Statement on World Tuberculosis Day, March 23, 2016
Blood Test Can Predict Risk of Developing Tuberculosis, March 23, 2016