World Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Day offers an opportunity to reflect on recent strides in tropical disease research and the work that remains. NIAID conducts and supports work on a wide variety of diseases—some of which rarely make headlines but cause immense suffering. An example of this is leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease that sickens hundreds of thousands of people each year, mostly in equatorial regions of the globe. In recent years, NIAID has made significant efforts to study the parasite that causes the disease and find new ways to battle it.
Conditioning the lungs with interferon-gamma, a natural immune system protein best known for fighting bacterial infections, appears to be a strong antiviral for SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19
The route a pathogen takes in causing infection can determine the severity of disease. NIAID scientists are looking at metabolism to determine how and why there is a difference.
NIAID researchers used structural information about two malaria parasite proteins along with mechanistic information about the interaction between them to design and build an entirely novel candidate vaccine. When tested in rats, their “structure-based design 1” (SBD1) immunogen vaccine performed better than other experimental malaria vaccines. It also upends the conventional wisdom that successful vaccines must elicit receptor-blocking antibodies.
In children with cerebral malaria, brain swelling can cause seizures, coma, and death. Researchers from NIAID and their colleagues studied children with cerebral malaria in Malawi to better understand the underlying causes of these devastating symptoms.
With ticks expanding their territories in many parts of the world, a NIAID research group has likewise expanded its promising vaccine research to two typically rare pathogens with potential for public health importance -- Kyasanur Forest disease and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever.
SARS-CoV-2 evolves three times faster in white-tailed deer than in people, making NIAID-funded scientists at The Ohio State University and colleagues ask whether deer are an important reservoir for emerging virus variants.
NIAID researchers used mice to investigate a possible relationship between parasitic worm infection and resistance to severe COVID-19.
Viral hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease caused by infection with any of the known hepatitis viruses—A, B, C, D, and E. Most of the global viral hepatitis burden is from hepatitis B and C, which affect 354 million people and result in 1.1 million deaths annually. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that in 2020 there were 14,000 and 50,300 new acute infections of...
A new understanding of vaccine components gained through electron microscopy and other direct visualization techniques could help scientists design more effective seasonal influenza vaccines.
Some responses to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines reported as severe allergic reactions were likely a recently described, non-allergic condition called immunization stress-related response (ISRR), according to a study by investigators. The symptoms of ISRR can closely mimic those of a severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening, systemic allergic reaction in which the immune system releases a dangerous flood of chemicals.
NIAID scientists have found an association between widely used chemicals called diisocyanates and atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease commonly known as eczema.
Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a little-known yet horrific disease in which people die from lack of sleep. In a new study, NIAID scientists developed a cerebral organoid model to study the exact protein mutation that causes FFI.
A team of NIAID-led researchers has identified a mechanism in mice in which the immune system and commensal bacteria help repair damaged sensory neurons within the skin. They hope their findings could lead to therapies that stimulate recovery in people following skin injury and limit damage from chemotherapy and chronic diseases.
A COVID-19 autopsy study from NIAID and many other collaborators helped researchers rethink where SARS-CoV-2 spread in the body and how long its remnants persisted.
As scientists learn more about SARS-CoV-2 and its infection tactics, nasal vaccines appear to be a promising response.
Women are disproportionately affected by HIV, with young women in sub-Saharan Africa three times as likely to be infected than young men in the same age group. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) be offered to high-risk individuals for prevention. As a result, oral PrEP has been introduced in more than 70 countries...
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, a part of NIH, stands with the scientific community in recognizing October as Eczema Awareness Month and acknowledging the need for continued research into possible cures and therapeutics.
For decades, scientists have wondered how different strains of prions can propagate when they do not carry their own genes with them as they move from host to host. A new study from NIAID researchers and colleagues reveals how differences in the folding of the primary protein of prions (PrP) can help determine the distinct characteristics of prion strains.
A new comparison study in PNAS from NIAID intramural scientists clearly shows that for SARS-CoV-2, nasal vaccination – particularly in two doses – has clear advantages over muscular delivery in laboratory mice.
NIH Scientists Advance Understanding of Pediatric Immune Responses to COVID-19 and Rare Inflammatory Syndrome
A comprehensive analysis evaluating immune responses in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection and in those with a rare post-infection inflammatory syndrome called MIS-C has revealed distinct immunopathological signatures associated with each condition.
Add Staphylococcus epidermidis to the list of common human bacteria undergoing an image change: From bad reputation of “disease causing” to something helpful – and likely interesting to probiotic users.
S. epidermidis is known as a bacterium that usually colonizes harmlessly on the skin, but can be dangerous when it invades deeper, say through a cut or – more commonly – a surgical implant, such...
NIAID preclinical study shows drug FPS-ZM1 could limit COVID-19 lung damage.