News Releases

Showing results filtered by:

December 2016

  • NIAID Research Aids Discovery of Genetic Immune Disorder

    December 23, 2016

    Investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and international colleagues have identified a genetic immune disorder characterized by increased susceptibility and poor immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, in some cases, an EBV-associated cancer called Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The researchers studied two unrelated sets of siblings with similar immune problems and determined their symptoms were likely caused by a lack of CD70, a protein found on the surface of several types of immune cells.

  • NIH-Supported Scientists Accelerate Immune Response to Tuberculosis in Mice

    December 22, 2016

    WHAT:New research findings provide insight into the immune system pathways that may be key to developing an effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine. The study, to be published Thursday in the journal Nature Communications, was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Shortened Treatment for Middle Ear Infection is Less Effective than Standard Course

    December 21, 2016

    A five-day antimicrobial treatment regimen for middle ear infections in young children is inferior to the standard 10-day regimen, according to newly published research in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). Middle ear infections (or “acute otitis media”) are common childhood illnesses often caused by bacteria and usually treated with antibiotics. However, overuse or inappropriate use of antibiotics (for example, to treat viral infections of the middle ear) can accelerate the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  • NIH Launches First Large Trial of a Long-Acting Injectable Drug for HIV Prevention

    December 20, 2016

    The first large-scale clinical trial of a long-acting injectable drug for HIV prevention began today. The study, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, will examine whether a long-acting form of the investigational anti-HIV drug cabotegravir injected once every 8 weeks can safely protect men and transgender women from HIV infection at least as well as the anti-HIV medication Truvada taken daily as an oral tablet.

  • NIH Scientists Develop New Mouse Model to Study Salmonella Meningitis

    December 9, 2016

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have established in mice a way to study potentially life-threatening meningitis caused by Salmonella. Bacterial meningitis happens when bacteria infect the central nervous system (CNS), causing a serious disease that can be life-threatening and difficult to diagnose and treat. Patients who survive often have permanent brain damage.

  • NIH Statement on World AIDS Day 2016

    December 1, 2016

    Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesCarl W. Dieffenbach, Ph.D., Director, Division of AIDS, NIAID

November 2016

  • NIAID-Sponsored Study to Assess Shorter-Duration Antibiotics in Children

    November 28, 2016

    Physicians at five U.S. medical centers are planning to enroll up to 400 children in a clinical trial to evaluate whether a shorter course of antibiotics—five days instead of 10—is effective at treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children who show improvement after the first few days of taking antibiotics.

  • First New HIV Vaccine Efficacy Study in Seven Years Has Begun

    November 27, 2016

    The first HIV vaccine efficacy study to launch anywhere in seven years is now testing whether an experimental vaccine regimen safely prevents HIV infection among South African adults. The study, called HVTN 702, involves a new version of the only HIV vaccine candidate ever shown to provide some protection against the virus. HVTN 702 aims to enroll 5,400 men and women, making it the largest and most advanced HIV vaccine clinical trial to take place in South Africa, where more than 1,000 people become infected with HIV every day. 

  • NIAID-Supported Scientists Sequence, Explore the Genome of the River Blindness Parasite

    November 21, 2016

    Scientists have sequenced the genome of the parasitic worm responsible for causing onchocerciasis—an eye and skin infection more commonly known as river blindness.

  • NIAID-Supported Study Examines Vulnerability of Gonorrhea to Older Antibiotic Drug

    November 17, 2016

    A new clinical research study seeks to determine whether a rapid molecular diagnostic test can reliably identify gonorrhea infections that may be successfully treated with a single dose of an older antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. The study will enroll up to 381 men and women diagnosed with untreated Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • NIH Scientists Identify Potent Antibody that Neutralizes Nearly All HIV Strains

    November 15, 2016

    Scientists from the National Institutes of Health have identified an antibody from an HIV-infected person that potently neutralized 98 percent of HIV isolates tested, including 16 of 20 strains resistant to other antibodies of the same class. The remarkable breadth and potency of this antibody, named N6, make it an attractive candidate for further development to potentially treat or prevent HIV infection, say the researchers.

  • T-Cell Differences May Reveal Individuals’ Age, Susceptibility to Disease

    November 15, 2016

    Different cells of the human body differ greatly in structure and function. However, variation exists even among cells of one type. New research from investigators at the National Institutes of Health suggests the magnitude of such differences in T lymphocytes, or T cells, may indicate an individual’s age and genetic predisposition to disease. Learning more about so-called cell-to-cell expression variation, or CEV, may further illuminate how the immune system functions and one day serve as a diagnostic tool to help implement personalized medicine, according to the researchers.

  • Antibody VRC01 Safe, Only Modest Effect in Controlling HIV Without Antiretroviral Therapy

    November 9, 2016

    Infusions of an anti-HIV antibody known as VRC01 were shown to be safe and maintained intended antibody concentrations in the blood of people living with HIV, according to two related studies by scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG). The antibody modestly suppressed blood levels of HIV in people who stopped taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the delay in the reappearance of virus was not clinically significant.

  • Antibody Protects Against Fetal Disease in Mouse Model of Zika Infection

    November 7, 2016

    Administering a human antibody that neutralizes Zika virus to pregnant mice before or after Zika virus infection reduced levels of the virus in placental and fetal tissues and decreased fetal disease, new findings show. The work may aid development of vaccines and therapies for Zika virus infection, which can cause severe birth defects when it occurs during pregnancy.

  • Testing of Investigational Inactivated Zika Vaccine in Humans Begins

    November 7, 2016

    The first of five early stage clinical trials to test the safety and ability of an investigational Zika vaccine candidate called the Zika Purified Inactivated Virus (ZPIV) vaccine to generate an immune system response has begun at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) Clinical Trial Center in Silver Spring, Maryland. Scientists with WRAIR, part of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), developed the vaccine.

  • Two Genetic Markers that Predict Malaria Treatment Failure Found

    November 3, 2016

    A frontline malaria treatment that combines fast-acting dihydroartemisinin with long-lasting piperaquine is quickly losing power in Cambodia due to the rapid spread of drug-resistant parasites. The presence of piperaquine-resistant malaria parasites in several Cambodian provinces was confirmed earlier this year by National Institutes of Health researchers and their colleagues.

October 2016

  • Zika Infection Damages Mouse Testes, NIAID-Supported Study Finds

    October 31, 2016

    New research in male mice has revealed that Zika virus infection can break down and severely damage the animals’ testes. Whether these findings have any bearing on the potential impact of the virus on the reproductive health of infected men is unclear; however, the study findings suggest this is an important question to explore. Results from the study, conducted by researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, appear in Nature online October 31.

  • Skin Patch to Treat Peanut Allergy Shows Benefit in Children

    October 26, 2016

    A wearable patch that delivers small amounts of peanut protein through the skin shows promise for treating children and young adults with peanut allergy, with greater benefits for younger children, according to one-year results from an ongoing clinical trial. The treatment, called epicutaneous immunotherapy or EPIT, was safe and well-tolerated, and nearly all participants used the skin patch daily as directed.

  • NIAID Selects New Director for its Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

    October 25, 2016

    Emily Erbelding, M.D., M.P.H., an infectious disease physician with broad research and clinical experience in both government and academic medicine, has been named the new director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Large Increases in HIV Suppression Needed to Reduce New Infections in Critical Population

    October 19, 2016

    Achieving moderate reduction of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) will depend on significantly increasing the percentage of HIV-infected MSM whose viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels, according to a new mathematical model based on data from Baltimore. Access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are key to sustained HIV suppression, which dramatically reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to others.

  • Women Report Vaginal Ring for Preventing HIV Had Little Effect on Sexual Intercourse

    October 18, 2016

    Most women who used an experimental vaginal ring for HIV prevention report that the physical act of sex was largely unaffected by using the product, which is inserted monthly for continuous wear. This finding is among several insights gleaned about experiences of women who used the ring during the ASPIRE study, also known as MTN-020, announced today at the HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) meeting in Chicago.

  • NIH Scientists Uncover Genetic Explanation for Frustrating Syndrome

    October 17, 2016

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have identified a genetic explanation for a syndrome characterized by multiple frustrating and difficult-to-treat symptoms, including dizziness and lightheadedness, skin flushing and itching, gastrointestinal complaints, chronic pain, and bone and joint problems. Some people who experience these diverse symptoms have elevated levels of tryptase—a protein in the blood often associated with allergic reactions.

  • Scientists at NIH and Emory Achieve Sustained SIV Remission in Monkeys

    October 13, 2016

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Emory University have experimentally induced sustained remission of SIV, the simian form of HIV, in infected monkeys. The animals’ immune systems have been suppressing the virus to undetectable levels for as long as 23 months since the monkeys completed an investigational treatment regimen. In addition, the regimen has led to the near-complete replenishment of key immune cells that SIV had destroyed, something unachievable with antiretroviral therapy (ART) alone. The findings will be published in the Oct.

  • Study Finds Ebola Treatment ZMapp Holds Promise, Although Results Not Definitive

    October 12, 2016

    A clinical trial to evaluate the experimental Ebola treatment ZMapp found it to be safe and well-tolerated; however, because of the waning Ebola epidemic, the study enrolled too few people to determine definitively whether it is a better treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD) than the best available standard of care alone. The findings from the randomized, controlled trial known as PREVAIL II appear in the October 13th issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

  • NIAID-Supported Research Expands Number of Publicly Available Mouse Mutations

    October 5, 2016

    Genetically engineered mice serve as valuable models of human disease, contributing to major medical breakthroughs. Often, biomedical researchers must develop unique genetically modified strains of mice for experimentation, a costly and time-consuming process. Now, more researchers in fields from immunology to cancer may be able to save time and money by acquiring genetic material from a repository of previously engineered strains.

  • NIAID-Sponsored Study Finds Factors that Influence Asthma Severity in Inner-City Children

    October 5, 2016

    In a novel study of 717 children between ages 6 and 17, researchers have identified major factors associated with asthma severity in children from inner-city communities. They found that poor lung function, sensitivity to certain inhaled allergens, and exposure to second-hand smoke were important factors affecting asthma severity. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) funded the work with additional support from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, both parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

September 2016

  • Immune System Oxidant Could be Key to Inactivating Prions

    September 29, 2016

    A product that mimics the natural oxidative killing action of human immune cells against bacteria, viruses, and fungi also can inactivate prions and other proteins, some of which are thought to be important in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers. Prions are deadly protein-based pathogens that are extremely difficult to inactivate; recommended decontamination treatments often are dangerous to people or damaging to surfaces, such as those on surgical devices.

  • Media Availability: Federal Officials Outline Development Pathways to a Zika Vaccine

    September 28, 2016

    A safe and effective vaccine to protect against Zika virus infection is essential and should be feasible to develop, according to a commentary in the September 29th print issue of The New England Journal of Medicine by Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); Hilary D. Marston, M.D., of NIAID; Nicole Lurie, M.D., M.S.P.H., Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; and Luciana L. Borio, M.D., acting chief scientist, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The federal officials describe three potential strategies for conducting Zika vaccine clinical trials with each strategy dependent on disease incidence and likelihood of generating reliable data.

  • Experimental Zika Virus DNA Vaccines Protective in Monkeys

    September 22, 2016

    Two experimental Zika virus DNA vaccines developed by National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists protected monkeys against Zika infection after two doses, according to a study published in Science. One of those vaccines is being evaluated in a Phase 1 human trial now under way in three U.S. locations to evaluate the vaccine’s safety and ability to generate immune responses in people.

  • NIH Scientists Detail Pathways for Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance

    September 20, 2016

    Researchers must address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance and stay ahead of the inevitable future emergencies of resistant bacteria, according to physicians and scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. Writing in JAMA, the authors stress the urgent need for new strategies to identify and develop new antibiotic drug candidates and vaccines and other interventions to prevent bacterial infections.

  • Infant Gut Microbiome Appears to Shape Allergy Risk by Altering Immune Responses

    September 12, 2016

    The microbial communities, or microbiota, that naturally colonize the digestive tract in very young infants can affect their risk of later developing childhood allergies and asthma. Scientists now have identified a specific type of microbiota composition and corresponding metabolic environment in the neonatal gut that appears to influence immune cell populations and promote allergy and asthma development. The work was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • NIH-Funded Researchers Find Signs TB Can Persist in Lungs Despite Treatment

    September 6, 2016

    It has been known that the microbe that causes TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can persist in the lungs even after patient tissue samples test negative for the bacteria. In new research appearing in Nature Medicine, intramural researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, together with NIAID grantees, found through the use of positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scanning that TB lesions can remain in the lungs long after treatment with antibiotics has been completed.

August 2016

  • NIH-Supported Researchers Develop Novel System to Grow Norovirus in Intestinal Cells

    August 25, 2016

    For the first time, researchers have succeeded in culturing norovirus in human intestinal cells, a breakthrough that could help scientists develop novel therapeutics and vaccines against the debilitating effects of the virus.

  • Monkeys with Sudan ebolavirus Treated Successfully

    August 22, 2016

    Scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have successfully treated monkeys several days after the animals were infected with Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). The study is important, according to the researchers, because no proven treatments against SUDV exist and little is known about the window of opportunity for treating the infection.

  • NIH Explores Connection Between Ebola Survival and Co-Infection with Malaria Parasites

    August 16, 2016

    People infected with Ebola virus were 20 percent more likely to survive if they were co-infected with malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites, according to data collected at an Ebola diagnostic laboratory in Liberia in 2014-15. Moreover, greater numbers of Plasmodium parasites correlated with increased rates of Ebola survival, according to a dozen collaborating research groups in the new study, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

  • Oral Immunotherapy Is Safe, Effective Treatment for Peanut-Allergic Preschoolers, Study Suggests

    August 10, 2016

    Nearly 80 percent of peanut-allergic preschool children successfully incorporated peanut-containing foods into their diets after receiving peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT), a clinical trial has found. Peanut OIT involves eating small, gradually increasing amounts of peanut protein daily.

  • Three Vaccine Approaches Protect Monkeys Against Zika Infection

    August 4, 2016

    Three different investigational Zika virus vaccine platforms—an inactivated virus vaccine, a DNA-based vaccine, and an adenovirus vector-based vaccine—protected against infection, induced immune responses, and produced no adverse side effects when tested in rhesus macaques challenged with the Zika virus, according to findings appearing August 4 in the journal Science.

  • NIH Begins Testing Investigational Zika Vaccine in Humans

    August 3, 2016

    ​The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has launched a clinical trial of a vaccine candidate intended to prevent Zika virus infection. The early-stage study will evaluate the experimental vaccine’s safety and ability to generate an immune system response in participants.

July 2016

  • NIH-Funded Scientists Identify Immunological Profiles of People Who Make Powerful HIV Antibodies

    July 29, 2016

    People living with HIV who naturally produce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that may help suppress the virus have different immunological profiles than people who do not, researchers report. While bNAbs cannot completely clear HIV infections in people who have already acquired the virus, many scientists believe a successful preventive HIV vaccine must induce bNAbs

  • Zika Infection Is Caused by One Virus Serotype, NIH Study Finds

    July 29, 2016

    Vaccination against a single strain of Zika virus should be sufficient to protect against genetically diverse strains of the virus, according to a study conducted by investigators from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); Washington University in St. Louis; and Emory University in Atlanta.

  • NIH Launches Early-Stage Yellow Fever Vaccine Trial

    July 27, 2016

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has begun an early-stage clinical trial of an investigational vaccine designed to protect against yellow fever virus.

  • Studies in Mice Provide Insights into Antibody-Zika Virus Interactions

    July 27, 2016

    In research that could inform prophylactic treatment approaches for pregnant women at risk of Zika virus infection, investigators conducted experiments in mice and identified six Zika virus antibodies, including four that neutralize African, Asian and American strains of the mosquito-borne virus.

  • Vaccine Strategy Induces Antibodies that Can Target Multiple Influenza Viruses

    July 22, 2016

    WHAT: Scientists have identified three types of vaccine-induced antibodies that can neutralize diverse strains of influenza virus that infect humans. The discovery will help guide development of a universal influenza vaccine, according to investigators at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), both part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and collaborators who conducted the research. The findings appear in the July 21st online edition of Cell.

  • Immune-Enhancing Treatment May Destabilize HIV Reservoirs

    July 21, 2016

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to an undetectable level in most chronically infected people, it cannot eliminate reservoirs of HIV that persist in latently infected immune cells.

  • NIH Scientists Discover that Defective HIV DNA Can Encode HIV-Related Proteins

    July 18, 2016

    Investigators from the National Institutes of Health have discovered that cells from HIV-infected people whose virus is suppressed with treatment harbor defective HIV DNA that can nevertheless be transcribed into a template for producing HIV-related proteins.

  • HIV Therapy for Breastfeeding Mothers Can Virtually Eliminate Transmission to Babies

    July 18, 2016

    For HIV-infected mothers whose immune system is in good health, taking a three-drug antiretroviral regimen during breastfeeding essentially eliminates HIV transmission by breast milk to their infants, according to results from a large clinical trial conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and India.

  • Vaginal Ring May Cut HIV Infection Risk if Used Consistently

    July 18, 2016

    A new exploratory analysis of data from the ASPIRE study has found that using a drug-infused vaginal ring most or all of the time reduced the risk of HIV infection in women by at least 56 percent. This finding is being reported today at a press briefing at the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) in Durban, South Africa, and will be presented in more detail tomorrow in a lecture at the conference.

  • NIH Expands Investment in HIV Cure Research

    July 13, 2016

    The National Institutes of Health has awarded approximately $30 million in annual funding over the next five years to six research collaborations working to advance basic medical science toward an HIV cure. The awards comprise the second iteration of the Martin Delaney Collaboratory: Towards an HIV-1 Cure program and are a part of President Barack Obama’s pledge to invest in HIV cure research.

  • HIV Vaccine Research Requires Unprecedented Path

    July 12, 2016

    The development of an effective vaccine to prevent HIV infections would represent a critical step toward ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus far, the only large clinical trial for an HIV vaccine to show promise was the RV144 study conducted in Thailand in 2009, which resulted in a modest 31 percent reduction in infection. Researchers are working to improve on the results of RV144 and also have launched efforts to create vaccines that induce broadly neutralizing antibodies that can block a wide range of HIV variants.

  • PREVAIL Treatment Trial for Men with Persistent Ebola Viral RNA in Semen Opens in Liberia

    July 5, 2016

    The Partnership for Research on Ebola Virus in Liberia (PREVAIL), a U.S.-Liberia joint Clinical Research Partnership, today announced the opening of PREVAIL IV, a treatment trial for men who have survived Ebola virus disease (EVD) but continue to have evidence of Ebola virus genetic material, RNA, in their semen.

June 2016

  • Zika Virus Infection May Be Prolonged in Pregnancy

    June 29, 2016

    Zika virus infection confers protection against future infection in monkeys, but lingers in the body of pregnant animals for prolonged periods of time, according to research funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The findings appear in the June 28 issue of Nature Communications.

  • Zika Vaccines Protect Mice from Infection

    June 28, 2016

    A single dose of either of two experimental Zika vaccines fully protected mice challenged with Zika virus four or eight weeks after receiving the inoculations. The research, conducted by investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, suggests that similar vaccines for people could be similarly protective.

  • NIH-Supported Study Pinpoints Origin of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    June 28, 2016

    Researchers have used genetic sequencing to show that the 2009 global H1N1 influenza pandemic began in central Mexico, originating in pigs and spreading to humans. Mexico is not typically considered a source of novel influenza strains. The new findings appear online in the journal eLIFE. They shed light on how the novel virus evolved and stress the need for improved influenza surveillance. The research was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Gene Sequences Reveal Global Variations in Malaria Parasites

    June 27, 2016

    Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) parasites, which cause a debilitating form of malaria, are yielding their secrets to an international team of researchers funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. In the largest such effort to date, the team determined complete genomes of nearly 200 P. vivaxstrains that recently infected people in eight countries. Comparative analysis showed the parasites clustered into four genetically distinct populations that provide insights into the movement of P.

  • NIH Scientists Decode How Anthrax Toxin Proteins Might Help Treat Cancerous Tumors

    June 27, 2016

    Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), all parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), describe how combining engineered anthrax toxin proteins and existing chemotherapy drugs could potentially yield a therapy to reduce or eliminate cancerous tumors.

  • NIH Launches Large Study of Pregnant Women in Areas Affected by Zika Virus

    June 21, 2016

    The National Institutes of Health and Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz (Fiocruz), a national scientific research organization linked to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, have begun a multi-country study to evaluate the magnitude of health risks that Zika virus infection poses to pregnant women and their developing fetuses and infants. The study is opening in Puerto Rico and will expand to several locations in Brazil, Colombia and other areas that are experiencing active local transmission of the virus.

  • NIH-Developed Crowdsourcing Platform Makes Public Gene Expression Data More Accessible

    June 20, 2016

    WHAT:  Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, have developed a free online platform that uses a crowdsourcing approach to make public gene expression data more accessible to biomedical researchers without computational expertise. They describe the platform, called OMics Compendia Commons (OMiCC), in the June 20 online issue of Nature Biotechnology.

  • NIAID Selects Director of Division of Intramural Research

    June 14, 2016

    Steven M. Holland, M.D., has been named Director of the Division of Intramural Research (DIR) at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. He will lead the institute’s efforts to conduct basic and clinical research in a wide range of disciplines related to immunology, allergy and infectious diseases.

  • Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy Is Nutritionally Safe, NIH-Funded Study Shows

    June 10, 2016

    ​Introducing peanut-containing foods during infancy as a peanut allergy prevention strategy does not compromise the duration of breastfeeding or affect children’s growth and nutritional intakes, new findings show. The work, funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, is published online on June 10 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

May 2016

  • Novel Strategy May Improve Seasonal Flu Vaccine Effectiveness

    May 23, 2016

    New findings describe a novel strategy for predicting how circulating influenza viruses will evolve, an approach that may help scientists create better seasonal influenza vaccines.

  • Zika Virus Protein Could Be Vaccine Target

    May 19, 2016

    A viral protein known as NS5 is a promising target for vaccines against Zika and related viruses, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and colleagues at Mount Sinai’s Icahn School of Medicine.

  • NIH Statement on HIV Vaccine Awareness Day 2016

    May 18, 2016

    Advances in HIV/AIDS research have given us the opportunity to transform the lives of those living with HIV while providing highly effective methods of preventing the infection. This progress has strengthened optimism for achieving a durable end to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

  • Large-Scale HIV Vaccine Trial to Launch in South Africa

    May 18, 2016

    An early-stage HIV vaccine clinical trial in South Africa has determined that an investigational vaccine regimen is safe and generates comparable immune responses to those reported in a landmark 2009 study showing that a vaccine can protect people from HIV infection.

  • NIH-Led Team Discovers New HIV Vaccine Target

    May 12, 2016

    A team led by scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has reported a research trifecta. They discovered a new vulnerable site on HIV for a vaccine to target, a broadly neutralizing antibody that binds to that target site, and how the antibody stops the virus from infecting a cell.

  • Zika Virus Damages Placenta, Kills Fetal Mice

    May 11, 2016

    Zika virus infects and crosses the placentas of pregnant mice and causes severe damage or death in fetal mice, report scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health.

  • Investigational Malaria Vaccine Protects Healthy U.S. Adults for More than One Year

    May 9, 2016

    An experimental malaria vaccine protected a small number of healthy, malaria-naïve adults in the United States from infection for more than one year after immunization, according to results from a Phase 1 trial described in the May 9th issue of Nature Medicine.

  • AIDS-Kaposi’s Sarcoma Study Ended

    May 5, 2016

    Enrollment into a clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) investigating two different strategies to treat limited-stage AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma was stopped due to futility—if continued, the study would be unlikely to detect a difference between the two study arms.

  • NIH Statement on World Asthma Day 2016

    May 3, 2016

    On World Asthma Day 2016, the National Institutes of Health reaffirms its commitment to support research to improve the lives of all people with asthma. NIH-funded research has advanced our understanding of asthma as a disease as well as the impact asthma has on the lives of those affected. 

April 2016

  • Cancer Drug May Treat Sepsis, Other Uncontrollable Immune Responses to Infection

    April 29, 2016

    Results from laboratory experiments and mouse studies suggest that small doses of drugs from a specific class of approved cancer medications called topoisomerase 1 (top1) inhibitors may protect against the overwhelming immune response to infection that sometimes leads to sepsis, a bacterial condition that kills as many as 500,000 people in the United States each year.

  • Single Antibody Infusions Provide Durable Protection Against HIV-Like Virus in Monkeys

    April 27, 2016

    A single antibody infusion can protect monkeys against infection with an HIV-like virus for up to 23 weeks, researchers have found. The study, published in Nature, was led by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and The Rockefeller University.

  • “Dirty Mouse” May Model Human Immune System More Accurately, NIH-Funded Study Suggests

    April 27, 2016

    Medical interventions that work well when tested in mouse models can fail when they advance to safety and efficacy testing in humans. One reason for this, scientists propose, may be the differences between immune system development in laboratory mice and humans. 

  • World Malaria Day 2016

    April 25, 2016

    On World Malaria Day 2016, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recognizes the considerable gains that have been made in reducing the global burden of malaria and renews our commitment to conducting and supporting the cutting-edge scientific research needed to end the scourge of this devastating mosquito-borne disease.

  • NIH Study Finds Factors that May Influence Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness

    April 19, 2016

    The long-held approach to predicting seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness may need to be revisited, new research suggests. Currently, seasonal flu vaccines are designed to induce high levels of protective antibodies against hemagglutinin (HA), a protein found on the surface of the influenza virus that enables the virus to enter a human cell and initiate infection.

  • Two-Vaccine Ebola Regimen Shows Promise in Early-Stage Clinical Trial

    April 19, 2016

    An immunization regimen using two Ebola vaccine candidates was safe and well-tolerated and induced an immune response in healthy adult volunteers in a Phase 1 clinical trial. Results from the study are described in the April 19th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

  • Islet Transplantation Restores Blood Sugar Awareness and Control in Type 1 Diabetes

    April 18, 2016

    New clinical trial results show that transplantation of pancreatic islets—cell clusters that contain insulin-producing cells—prevents severe, potentially life-threatening drops in blood sugar in people with type 1 diabetes.

  • Animal Study Paints Picture of the Earliest Immune Responses to HIV

    April 13, 2016

    New research in monkeys exposed to SIV, the monkey equivalent of HIV, suggests that the virus spreads rapidly in the body and triggers early host responses that suppress antiviral immunity, thus promoting viral replication. The study, published in Cell, provides a detailed view of the period between initial mucosal exposure to the virus and the point at which it becomes detectable in the blood.

  • NIH Study Finds Protein May Be Responsible for Damage in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    April 7, 2016

    Scientists have identified a protein that may be the cause of tissue damage in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), which affects as many as 56 of every 100,000 people in the United States. EoE is a disease in which white blood cells called eosinophils accumulate in the esophagus, often causing difficult or painful swallowing, nausea, vomiting and poor growth in children and adults.

  • NIH Launches Large Clinical Trials of Antibody-Based HIV Prevention

    April 7, 2016

    Enrollment has begun in the first of two multinational clinical trials of an intravenously delivered investigational antibody for preventing HIV infection. Known as the AMP Studies, for antibody-mediated prevention, the trials will test whether giving people an investigational anti-HIV antibody called VRC01 as an intravenous infusion every 8 weeks is safe, tolerable and effective at preventing HIV infection.

  • NIH Awards Six Grants to Explore How Combination Adjuvants Improve Vaccines

    April 4, 2016

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded six grants totaling $3.1 million to researchers exploring the molecular mechanisms behind combination vaccine adjuvants—substances that improve the effectiveness of vaccines. 

  • NIH Doctors Describe Severe Case of Ebola Virus Disease

    April 4, 2016

    For more than a month in 2015, a multidisciplinary team including infectious disease and critical care physicians and nurses, respiratory therapists and other specialists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) treated a critically ill patient who had contracted Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. 

March 2016

  • Structure of Zika Virus Determined

    March 31, 2016

    A near-atomic level map of Zika virus shows its structure to be largely similar to that of dengue virus and other flaviviruses, but with a notable difference in one key surface protein, report scientists funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • NIH Statement on World Tuberculosis Day

    March 23, 2016

    On World Tuberculosis (TB) Day 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), reaffirms its commitment to researching ways to better understand, prevent, diagnose and treat TB. March 24 marks the day in 1882 when German microbiologist Robert Koch announced he had discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb), the bacterium that causes TB—an airborne disease that most often attacks the lungs.

  • Blood Test Can Predict Risk of Developing Tuberculosis

    March 23, 2016

    One-third of the world’s population is thought to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), but just a small fraction ever develops symptomatic illness.

  • AIDS-Kaposi’s Sarcoma Study Changed Due to Drug Underperformance

    March 18, 2016

    A clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) comparing three advanced Kaposi’s sarcoma chemotherapy regimens in combination with antiretroviral treatment (ART) for patients with AIDS will no longer enroll participants in the study arm testing the oral chemotherapy drug etoposide.

  • Antibodies from Unconventional B Cells Less Likely to Neutralize HIV, NIH Study Finds

    March 17, 2016

    Antibodies derived from a type of immune cell found in unusually high numbers in HIV-infected individuals with chronically uncontrolled virus levels are less effective at neutralizing HIV than antibodies derived from a different type of immune cell more common in people without HIV, scientists report. 

  • Experimental Dengue Vaccine Protects All Recipients in Virus Challenge Study

    March 16, 2016

    A clinical trial in which volunteers were infected with dengue virus six months after receiving either an experimental dengue vaccine developed by scientists from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) or a placebo injection yielded starkly contrasting results. All 21 volunteers who received the vaccine, TV003, were protected from infection, while all 20 placebo recipients developed infection.

  • NIAID to Fund Further Study of Dapivirine Vaginal Ring for HIV Prevention

    March 13, 2016

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced today that it would move forward with an open-label extension study of an HIV prevention tool for women: a silicone ring that continuously releases the experimental antiretroviral drug dapivirine in the vagina.

  • Scientists Discover Potential Bacterial Indicator for Intestinal Disease in Premature Infants

    March 8, 2016

    Scientists have discovered a microbial biomarker that may indicate which premature infants are at increased risk for developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious intestinal disease that affects approximately 10 percent of premature infants and commonly leads to infant death. 

  • Omalizumab Decreases Colds in Inner-City Children with Asthma, NIH Study Reports

    March 5, 2016

    Treatment with omalizumab significantly decreases the number of colds in inner-city children with allergic asthma, researchers reported at a press conference today at the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) 2016 Annual Meeting in Los Angeles.

  • NIAID Seeks Public Comment on Update to Food Allergy Guidelines

    March 4, 2016

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, is seeking public comment on a draft update to the 2010 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States (link is external) to address the prevention of peanut allergy. 

  • Benefits of Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy Persist After One-Year Peanut Avoidance

    March 4, 2016

    ​The benefits of regularly consuming peanut-containing foods early in life to prevent the development of peanut allergy persist even after stopping peanut consumption for one year, new clinical trial findings show. 

February 2016

  • Experimental Ebola Antibody Protects Monkeys

    February 25, 2016

    Scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and colleagues have discovered that a single monoclonal antibody—a protein that attacks viruses—isolated from a human Ebola virus disease survivor protected non-human primates when given as late as five days after lethal Ebola infection. 

  • Maraviroc-Containing Regimens Safe, Tolerable When Taken for HIV Prevention

    February 24, 2016

    Maraviroc, an oral drug used to treat HIV infection, is safe and well-tolerated when taken daily as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection by HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased risk for acquiring HIV.

  • NIH-Funded Study Finds Critical Population Adheres to PrEP with Coordinated Care

    February 24, 2016

    New findings suggest that black men who have sex with men (BMSM) with access to a novel coordinated care program can adhere to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a medication regimen that helps prevent HIV infection in uninfected individuals.

  • Experimental Ebola Vaccines Well Tolerated, Immunogenic in Phase 2 Study

    February 23, 2016

    Two investigational vaccines designed to protect against Ebola virus disease were well-tolerated and induced an immune response among 1,000 vaccinated participants in the Phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial called PREVAIL I.

  • Ebola Survivor Study Yields Insights on Complications of Disease

    February 23, 2016

    Preliminary findings from PREVAIL III, a study of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors being conducted in Liberia, indicate that both Ebola survivors and their close contacts have a high burden of illness. However, the prevalence of eye, musculoskeletal, and neurological complications was greater among the individuals who survived EVD.

  • Experimental Ebola Drug ZMapp May Benefit Patients, but Insufficient Data to be Certain, Study Finds

    February 23, 2016

    According to initial results from a randomized, controlled trial of the experimental Ebola treatment ZMapp, the monoclonal antibody cocktail was well-tolerated and showed promise. Due to decreasing incidence in Ebola, the study could not enroll enough volunteers to determine definitively whether it is a better treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD) than supportive care only.

  • NIH-Funded Study Finds Effect of PrEP on Bone Density is Reversible

    February 23, 2016

    The slight loss in bone mineral density associated with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) antiretroviral use is reversible in young adult patients who stop taking the drugs, according to findings presented by researchers today at the 23rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Boston.

  • Vaginal Ring Provides Partial Protection from HIV in Large Multinational Trial

    February 22, 2016

    A ring that continuously releases an experimental antiretroviral drug in the vagina safely provided a modest level of protection against HIV infection in women, a large clinical trial in four sub-Saharan African countries has found.

  • Tick Genome Reveals Secrets of a Successful Bloodsucker

    February 9, 2016

    With tenacity befitting their subject, an international team of nearly 100 researchers toiled for a decade and overcame tough technical challenges to decipher the genome of the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). 

  • NIH Seeks Research Applications to Study Zika in Pregnancy, Developing Fetus

    February 5, 2016

    The National Institutes of Health today announced its research priorities for studies to investigate how Zika virus infection affects reproduction, pregnancy and the developing fetus.  Zika virus currently is circulating in about 30 countries and territories, notably in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • NIH Scientists Discover Genetic Cause of Rare Allergy to Vibration

    February 3, 2016

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified a genetic mutation responsible for a rare form of inherited hives induced by vibration, also known as vibratory urticaria. Running, hand clapping, towel drying or even taking a bumpy bus ride can cause temporary skin rashes in people with this rare disorder.

January 2016

  • Ongoing HIV Replication Replenishes Viral Reservoirs During Therapy

    January 27, 2016

    In HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART), ongoing HIV replication in lymphoid tissues such as the lymph nodes helps maintain stores, or reservoirs, of the virus, a new study funded by the National Institutes of Health suggests.

  • NIH-Funded Study Suggests Potential to Predict Peanut Allergy Immunotherapy Outcomes

    January 25, 2016

    Oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy induces early, distinct changes in immune T-cell populations that potentially may help researchers determine which people will respond well to the therapy and which immune mechanisms are involved in the response, a new study suggests.

  • Dengue Vaccine Enters Phase 3 Trial in Brazil

    January 14, 2016

    A large-scale clinical trial to evaluate whether a candidate vaccine can prevent the mosquito-borne illness dengue fever has been launched in Brazil. The vaccine, TV003, was developed by scientists in the laboratory of Stephen Whitehead, Ph.D., at NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

  • NIH Experts Offer Lessons Learned from the 2014-2015 Ebola Outbreak

    January 14, 2016

    In a special issue on Ebola for the journal Clinical Trials, leading researchers from across the globe, including from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), describe in a series of articles the challenges of conducting ethically and scientifically sound clinical research during the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa and lessons learned for future outbreaks.

  • New NIH Awards Will Support Development of Therapeutic Alternatives to Traditional Antibiotics

    January 11, 2016

    New NIH awards will support development of therapeutic alternatives to traditional antibiotics the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded approximately $5 million in funding for 24 research projects seeking to develop non-traditional therapeutics for bacterial infections to help address the growing health threat of antibiotic resistance.

  • Current Malaria Treatment Fails in Cambodia Due to Drug-Resistant Parasites

    January 7, 2016

    New findings from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), confirm dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Cambodia, has failed in certain provinces due to parasite resistance to artemisinin and piperaquine.