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September 2017

  • Exposure to Pet and Pest Allergens During Infancy Linked to Reduced Asthma Risk

    September 19, 2017

    Children exposed to high indoor levels of pet or pest allergens during infancy have a lower risk of developing asthma by 7 years of age, new research supported by the National Institutes of Health reveals. The findings, published September 19 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, may provide clues for the design of strategies to prevent asthma from developing.

  • Zika Virus Selectively Infects and Kills Glioblastoma Cells in Mice

    September 5, 2017

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) may infect and kill a specific type of brain cancer cells while leaving normal adult brain tissue minimally affected, according to a new study supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In the paper, published online on September 5 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, researchers describe the impact of ZIKV on glioblastoma cells in both human tissue samples and mice.

August 2017

  • NIAID Scientists Illuminate Mechanism of Increased Cardiovascular Risks with HIV

    August 30, 2017

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have expanded the understanding of how chronic inflammation and persistent immune activation associated with HIV infection drive cardiovascular disease risk in people living with HIV. People living with HIV are up to twice as likely to experience heart attacks, strokes and other forms of cardiovascular disease as people who do not have the virus, even when HIV infection is well-controlled with the use of antiretroviral therapy. 

  • Scientists Develop Infection Model for Tick-borne Flaviviruses

    August 22, 2017

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have filled a research gap by developing a laboratory model to study ticks that transmit flaviviruses, such as Powassan virus.  Powassan virus was implicated in the death of a New York man earlier this year. The unusual model involves culturing organs taken from Ixodes scapularis ticks and then infecting those organ cultures with flaviviruses, according to researchers at Rocky Mountain Laboratories, part of NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

  • NIH Herpesvirus Study in Mice Leads to Discovery of Potential Broad-Spectrum Antiviral

    August 15, 2017

    After herpesviruses infect a cell, their genomes are assembled into specialized protein structures called nucleosomes. Many cellular enzyme complexes can modulate these structures to either promote or inhibit the progression of infection. Scientists studying how one of these complexes (EZH2/1) regulated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection unexpectedly found that inhibiting EZH2/1 suppressed viral infection.

  • NIH Scientists Track Zika Virus Transmission in Mice

    August 3, 2017

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have developed a mouse model to study Zika virus transmitted sexually from males to females, as well as vertically from a pregnant female to her fetus. They are using the model to study how and when the virus is spread, including how the virus crosses the placenta, as well as to investigate potential treatments to block virus transmission.

July 2017

  • In Adolescents, Oral Truvada and Vaginal Ring for HIV Prevention Are Safe, Acceptable

    July 25, 2017

    A monthly vaginal ring and a daily oral tablet, both containing anti-HIV drugs, were safe and acceptable in studies of adolescents, two teams of investigators reported today at the 9th IAS Conference on HIV Science in Paris. The experimental ring is designed for HIV prevention and the oral tablet is already used for this purpose in adults. Adherence to the ring was high, while adherence to the tablet was moderate and diminished substantially when study visits became less frequent.

  • Child Living with HIV Maintains Remission Without Drugs Since 2008

    July 24, 2017

    A nine-year-old South African child who was diagnosed with HIV infection at one month of age and received anti-HIV treatment during infancy has suppressed the virus without anti-HIV drugs for eight and a half years, scientists reported today at the 9th IAS Conference on HIV Science in Paris. This case appears to be the third reported instance of sustained HIV remission in a child after early, limited anti-HIV treatment. 

  • Experimental HIV Vaccine Regimen Is Well-Tolerated, Elicits Immune Responses

    July 24, 2017

    Results from an early-stage clinical trial called APPROACH show that an investigational HIV vaccine regimen was well-tolerated and generated immune responses against HIV in healthy adults. The APPROACH findings, as well as results expected in late 2017 from another early-stage clinical trial called TRAVERSE, will form the basis of the decision whether to move forward with a larger trial in southern Africa to evaluate vaccine safety and efficacy among women at risk of acquiring HIV.

  • Drug Interaction Concerns May Negatively Affect HIV Treatment Adherence Among Transgender Women

    July 24, 2017

    Transgender women—people whose birth certificates indicate or once indicated male sex but who identify as women—are at high risk of HIV acquisition, and thus are a key population for HIV prevention and treatment efforts.

  • NIH-Supported Scientists Elicit Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to HIV in Calves

    July 20, 2017

    Scientists supported by the National Institutes of Health have achieved a significant step forward, eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV by immunizing calves. The findings offer insights for HIV vaccine design, and support further study of modified bovine antibodies as HIV therapeutics or prevention tools in humans, scientists reported in a paper published online today in Nature.

  • Experimental Zika Virus Vaccines Restrict In Utero Virus Transmission in Mice

    July 13, 2017

    Two experimental vaccines can restrict Zika virus transmission from pregnant mice to their fetuses and can prevent Zika virus-induced placental damage and fetal demise, according to new findings published July 13 in Cell. Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis; the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB); and other partners conducted the research.

June 2017

  • Common Antimicrobials Help Patients Recover from MRSA Abscesses

    June 29, 2017

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are resistant to multiple antibiotics and commonly cause skin infections that can lead to more serious or life-threatening infection in other parts of the body. In new findings published in The New England Journal of Medicine, researchers found that two common, inexpensive antimicrobials can help patients heal from MRSA skin abscesses. The findings suggest that current treatment options for MRSA still have a role, even as scientists continue to search for new antimicrobial products.

  • NIH Study Sheds Light on Immune Responses Driving Obesity-Induced Liver Disease

    June 28, 2017

    New findings from mouse models reveal that the type of immune response that helps maintain healthy metabolism in fatty tissues, called type 2 immunity, also drives obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The work, led by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, shows that the inflammatory environment in the fatty liver is more complex than previously thought.

  • NIAID Scientists Identify Cause, Possible Treatment for Life-Threatening Gut Condition

    June 28, 2017

    Investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and international colleagues have discovered a genetic cause and potential treatment strategy for a rare immune disorder called CHAPLE disease. Children with the condition can experience severe gastrointestinal distress and deep vein blood clots. No effective treatments are available to ameliorate or prevent these life-threatening symptoms. 

  • Study to Examine Effects of Zika Infection in Guatemalan Infants and Children

    June 19, 2017

    A large natural history study examining the neurologic, neurodevelopmental and other clinical outcomes of Zika virus infection in infants and young children has begun in rural Guatemala. It will focus on those infected with Zika virus after birth rather than those infected congenitally. The study is being conducted by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the U.S.

  • Scientists Identify Single-Gene Mutations that Lead to Atopic Dermatitis

    June 19, 2017

    Researchers have identified mutations in a gene called CARD11 that lead to atopic dermatitis, or eczema, an allergic skin disease. Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and other institutions discovered the mutations in four unrelated families with severe atopic dermatitis and studied the resulting cell-signaling defects that contribute to allergic disease.

  • NIH Study: Glutamine Suppresses Herpes in Mice and Guinea Pigs

    June 16, 2017

    Glutamine supplements can suppress reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in mice and guinea pigs, according to findings recently published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The research was conducted by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  • NIAID Scientists Discover Rare Genetic Susceptibility to Common Cold

    June 12, 2017

    Scientists have identified a rare genetic mutation that results in a markedly increased susceptibility to infection by human rhinoviruses (HRVs)—the main causes of the common cold. Colds contribute to more than 18 billion upper respiratory infections worldwide each year, according to the Global Burden of Disease Study.

  • NIAID-Sponsored Trial of Experimental Chikungunya Vaccine Begins

    June 5, 2017

    A clinical trial of an experimental vaccine to prevent infection with chikungunya virus is now enrolling healthy adult volunteers at sites in the United States. The Phase 1/2 trial, which is sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is being conducted at several NIAID-funded Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units. The candidate vaccine, MV-CHIKV, was developed by Themis Bioscience of Vienna, Austria. 

  • Details of Lassa Virus Structure Could Inform Development of Vaccines, Therapies

    June 2, 2017

    A 10-year Lassa virus research project has yielded structural and functional details of a key viral surface protein that could help advance development of Lassa vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics, which are currently lacking. The work was led by the Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health.

May 2017

  • Mycobacteria Use Protein to Create Diverse Populations, Avoid Drugs

    May 31, 2017

    Subgroups of tuberculosis (TB)-causing bacteria can persist even when antibiotics wipe out most of the overall population. The need to eliminate these persistent subpopulations is one reason why TB treatment regimens are so lengthy. Now, researchers have shown that a single protein allows mycobacteria to generate diverse populations that can avoid TB drugs. The protein may be a target for intervention; blocking it might result in less mycobacterial diversity and shorten TB treatment courses.

  • NIH Scientists Find Real-Time Imaging in Mice a Promising Influenza Study Tool

    May 30, 2017

    Real-time imaging of influenza infection in mice is a promising new method to quickly monitor disease progression and to evaluate whether candidate vaccines and treatments are effective in this animal model, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists.

  • Zika Virus Spread Undetected for Many Months, NIH-Supported Study Finds

    May 24, 2017

    Genetic analysis of samples collected as the Zika virus (ZIKV) spread throughout the Americas after its introduction in 2013 or 2014 has shown that the virus circulated undetected for up to a year in some regions before it came to the attention of public health authorities. Genetic sequencing has also enabled scientists to recreate the epidemiological and evolutionary paths the virus took as it spread and split into the distinct subtypes—or clades—that have been detected in the Americas. The research, published in Nature today, was supported in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Modified Experimental Vaccine Protects Monkeys from Deadly Malaria

    May 22, 2017

    WHAT:Researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, modified an experimental malaria vaccine and showed that it completely protected four of eight monkeys that received it against challenge with the virulent Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. In three of the remaining four monkeys, the vaccine delayed when parasites first appeared in the blood by more than 25 days. 

  • NIH Statement on HIV Vaccine Awareness Day

    May 18, 2017

    Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesCarl W. Dieffenbach, Ph.D., Director, Division of AIDS, NIAID

  • Antibodies from Ebola Survivor Protect Mice and Ferrets Against Related Viruses

    May 18, 2017

    WHAT: The fight to contain the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak in West Africa was hampered by the lack of an effective treatment or vaccine. Researchers funded in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have studied the blood of an Ebola survivor, searching for human antibodies that might effectively treat not only people infected with Ebola virus, but those infected with related viruses as well. Now the researchers have identified two such antibodies that hold promise as Ebola treatments. 

  • FDA-Approved Drug Helps Treat Rare Immunologic Disease, Study Finds

    May 17, 2017

    Adding the injectable drug mepolizumab to standard treatment for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), a rare immunologic disease, significantly improved clinical outcomes among participants in an advanced clinical trial, scientists report.

  • Enterococci May Have Evolved Antimicrobial Resistance Millions of Years Ago

    May 11, 2017

    Enterococci bacteria are the bane of hospitals, causing thousands of multidrug-resistant infections in patients each year. Now, researchers have traced evidence of the bacteria’s evolutionary history back 425 million years and theorize that the same traits that allow the bacteria to thrive in hospitals likely emerged when they were carried onto land in the guts of the world’s first terrestrial animals. The study was funded in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • NIH Research Improves Health for People with Asthma

    May 1, 2017

    May is Asthma Awareness Month, and the National Institutes of Health is finding solutions to improve the health of the nearly 25 million people in the United States who currently have asthma. In recent decades, the prevalence of asthma has been increasing, resulting in millions of urgent medical visits and missed days of work and school each year. 

April 2017

  • Zika Virus Persists in the Central Nervous System and Lymph Nodes of Rhesus Monkeys

    April 28, 2017

    Zika virus can persist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), lymph nodes and colorectal tissue of infected rhesus monkeys for weeks after the virus has been cleared from blood, urine and mucosal secretions, according to a study published online in Cell. The research was led by Dan H. Barouch, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School and was funded in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). 

  • World Malaria Day 2017

    April 25, 2017

    Statement of B. Fenton Hall, M.D., Ph.D., and Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of Health

  • NIH Funds Eleven International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research

    April 21, 2017

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced approximately $12.9 million in first-year funding, subject to availability, for eleven malaria research centers around the world. The 7-year awards continue NIAID’s 2010 program that created the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMRs) in regions where malaria is endemic. The awards fund four new and seven existing centers that work in 17 countries in Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands and Latin America. 

  • NIH Scientists Advance Understanding of Herpesvirus Infection

    April 12, 2017

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections last a lifetime. Once a person has been infected, the virus can remain dormant (latent) for years before periodically reactivating to cause recurrent disease. This poorly understood cycle has frustrated scientists for years. Now, National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have identified a set of protein complexes that are recruited to viral genes and stimulate both initial infection and reactivation from latency.  Environmental stresses known to regulate these proteins also induce reactivation.

  • NIH Study of Ebola Patient Traces Disease Progression and Recovery

    April 12, 2017

    Analysis of daily gene activation in a patient with severe Ebola virus disease cared for at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 2015 found changes in antiviral and immune response genes that pinpointed key transition points in the response to infection. The changes included a marked decline in antiviral responses that correlated with clearance of virus from white blood cells. The analysis also showed that the preponderance of host responses shifted rapidly from activation of genes involved in cell damage and inflammation toward those linked to promotion of cellular and organ repair.

  • Ebola: New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies

    April 6, 2017

    The French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Inserm), the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), in collaboration with health authorities in Guinea and Liberia, are launching a large clinical trial of candidate Ebola vaccines under the aegis of the PREVAC international consortium (Partnership for Research on Ebola VACcination). 

  • Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection in Monkeys

    April 5, 2017

    Scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health have found that an experimental treatment cured 100 percent of guinea pigs and rhesus monkeys in late stages of infection with lethal levels of Marburg and Ravn viruses, relatives of the Ebola virus. Although the Marburg and Ravn viruses are less familiar than Ebola virus, both can resemble Ebola in symptoms and outcomes in people, and both lack preventive and therapeutic countermeasures.

March 2017

  • Phase 2 Zika Vaccine Trial Begins in U.S., Central and South America

    March 31, 2017

    Vaccinations have begun in a multi-site Phase 2/2b clinical trial testing an experimental DNA vaccine designed to protect against disease caused by Zika infection. The vaccine was developed by government scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

  • NIH Designates $42.7 Million for Food Allergy Research Consortium

    March 29, 2017

    The National Institutes of Health intends to award $42.7 million over seven years to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research (CoFAR) so it may continue evaluating new approaches to treat food allergy. Established in 2005, the CoFAR has been continuously funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of NIH. The first year of funding has been awarded, and awards will be made in subsequent years based on the availability of funds.

  • NIH Statement on World Tuberculosis Day

    March 24, 2017

    Statement of Christine F. Sizemore, PhD., Richard Hafner, M.D., and Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of Health

  • New Adjuvant Permits Early Pneumococcal Immunization in Newborn Monkeys

    March 23, 2017

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children receive pneumococcal conjugate vaccinations (PCV13) against potentially life-threatening pneumococcal disease at two, four and six months of age. Earlier immunization would confer greater protection when infants are most vulnerable to disease, but newborns’ immature immune systems limit their capacity to respond effectively to PCV13 and establish immunity. 

  • Immune Molecule Protects Against Zika Virus Infection in Animal Models

    March 14, 2017

    A molecule naturally produced by the immune system protects mice and monkeys against Zika virus infection, an international team of researchers has found. Administering the molecule, called 25-hydroxycholesterol or 25HC, to pregnant mice reduced Zika virus infection in the fetal brain and protected against Zika-induced microcephaly. The work was supported in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Experimental Ebola Vaccine Regimen Induced Durable Immune Response, Study Finds

    March 14, 2017

    A two-vaccine regimen intended to protect against Ebola virus disease induced an immune response that persisted for approximately one year in healthy adult volunteers, according to results from a Phase 1 clinical trial published in the March 14th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. The investigational vaccines included Ad26.ZEBOV, developed by Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V., one of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, and MVA-BN-Filo, developed by Bavarian Nordic.

  • Monkeys Suppress HIV-Like Virus for Extended Period after Dual-Antibody Treatment

    March 13, 2017

    Giving monkeys two powerful anti-HIV antibodies immediately after infection with an HIV-like virus enabled the immune systems of some of the animals to control the virus long after the antibodies were gone, scientists at the National Institutes of Health and The Rockefeller University have found.  

  • Investigational Vaccine Protects Cattle from Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    March 10, 2017

    A novel vaccine developed by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, protected cattle from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, according to research published online in npj Vaccines on March 8. The research was conducted by a team of experts at NIAID, the Pirbright Institute based in the United Kingdom, and the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Switzerland.

  • NIH-Funded Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group Details Progress, Challenges

    March 9, 2017

    In June 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), provided $2 million in funding to establish an Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) to develop, prioritize and implement a clinical research agenda to address the growing public health threat of antibiotic resistance. A new series of articles appearing in the March 15th issue of the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases details the group’s progress and outlines its ongoing and future efforts.

  • Yellow Fever in the Americas

    March 8, 2017

    The unusually large outbreak of yellow fever now occurring in rural Brazil deserves careful attention by world health authorities, notes Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health. Writing in a Perspectives piece for the New England Journal of Medicine, Dr. Fauci and his associate Catharine I.

February 2017

  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Enters Clinical Testing

    February 22, 2017

    A Phase 1 clinical trial to test the safety and tolerability of an investigational vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has begun at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. The trial also will assess the vaccine’s ability to prompt an immune response in healthy adult participants. The investigational vaccine was developed by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of NIH.

  • Experimental PfSPZ Malaria Vaccine Provides Durable Protection Against Multiple Strains in NIH Clinical Trial

    February 21, 2017

    An investigational malaria vaccine has protected a small number of healthy U.S. adults from infection with a malaria strain different from that contained in the vaccine, according to a study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, sponsored and co-conducted the Phase 1 clinical trial.

  • NIH Begins Study of Vaccine to Protect Against Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    February 21, 2017

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has launched a Phase 1 clinical trial to test an investigational vaccine intended to provide broad protection against a range of mosquito-transmitted diseases, such as Zika, malaria, West Nile fever and dengue fever, and to hinder the ability of mosquitoes to transmit such infections. The study, which is being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, will examine the experimental vaccine’s safety and ability to generate an immune response. 

  • Investigational PfSPZ Malaria Vaccine Demonstrates Considerable Protection in Malian Adults for Duration of Malaria Season

    February 15, 2017

    An investigational malaria vaccine given intravenously was well-tolerated and protected a significant proportion of healthy adults against infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria—the deadliest form of the disease—for the duration of the malaria season, according to new findings published in the February 15th issue of the journal Lancet Infectious Diseases. The study participants live in Mali, Africa, where they are naturally exposed to the parasite.

  • NIH Research Helps Explain How Antibody Treatment Led to Sustained Remission of HIV-Like Virus

    February 15, 2017

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have found that the presence of the protein alpha-4 beta-7 integrin on the surface of HIV and its monkey equivalent—simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV—may help explain why an antibody protected monkeys from SIV in previous experiments. 

  • Experimental Malaria Vaccine Plus Chloroquine Protects Against Controlled Infection, Study Finds

    February 15, 2017

    An experimental malaria vaccine strategy known as PfSPZ-CVac, together with antimalarial medication, protected all nine clinical trial volunteers given three high-dose vaccinations, according to study results published today in Nature. 

  • NIH Scientists Illuminate Role of Staph Toxins in Bacterial Sepsis

    February 2, 2017

    Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria are a significant health concern for hospitalized infants, children and anyone with implanted medical devices. The bacteria—typically skin dwellers—can infect the bloodstream and cause a life-threatening condition known as sepsis. Between 1 and 3 million people a year in the United States are diagnosed with sepsis, and between 15 and 30 percent of them die. Severe bacterial sepsis is characterized by an extreme immune response, inflammation, reduced blood flow, clotting, and organ failure. Methicillin-resistant strains of S.

  • Investigational mRNA Vaccine Protects Mice and Monkeys from Zika Virus Infection

    February 2, 2017

    A novel, gene-based investigational vaccine protected mice and monkeys against Zika virus infection after a single dose, according to a study appearing online in the journal Nature on Feb. 2. The research was conducted by investigators funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), NIAID scientists, and other partners. The candidate vaccine, called ZIKV prM-E mRNA-LNP, uses messenger RNA (mRNA) with which the body produces Zika virus proteins designed to elicit infection-neutralizing antibodies.

  • Stem Cell Transplants May Induce Long-Term Remission of Multiple Sclerosis

    February 1, 2017

    New clinical trial results provide evidence that high-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by transplantation of a person's own blood-forming stem cells can induce sustained remission of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system. 

January 2017

  • NIH Advances Understanding of Defenses Against Antibiotic-Resistant Klebsiella Bacteria

    January 24, 2017

    Klebsiella bacteria cause about 10 percent of all hospital-acquired infections in the United States. K. pneumoniae sequence type 258 (ST258) is one of the Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae organisms labeled an urgent threat by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This strain of bacteria is particularly concerning because it is resistant to most antibiotics and kills nearly half of people with bloodstream infections.

  • NIAID Flu Experts Examine Evolution of Avian Influenza

    January 18, 2017

    Few influenza viruses are as widespread and adaptable as avian influenza viruses, and scientists are not entirely sure why. 

    In a new commentary published online in Emerging Infectious Diseases, two leading influenza experts from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, examine how the evolution of proteins found on the surfaces of flu viruses has impacted their ability to infect migratory birds and poultry and cause avian disease. 

  • NIH Scientists Identify Early Impact of Ebola Virus on Immune System

    January 17, 2017

    A new mouse model of early Ebola virus (EBOV) infection has shown National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and colleagues how early responses of the immune system can affect development of EBOV disease. The model could help identify protective immune responses as targets for developing human EBOV therapeutics.

    Scientists from NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases led the study with colleagues from the University of Washington and Columbia University.

  • NIAID Officials Call for Continued Zika Research

    January 13, 2017

    Although cases of Zika virus infection appear to be decreasing, the mosquito-borne virus likely will become endemic in the Americas and continue to cause outbreaks and sporadic cases. Given the serious complications of Zika virus infection, particularly in cases of congenital infection, researchers must continue their work to better understand how the virus causes disease and to develop effective vaccines and treatments, according to a new commentary. The article, by Anthony S.

  • NIH Scientists Repair Gene Defect in Stem Cells from Patients with Rare Immunodeficiency

    January 11, 2017

    Scientists have developed a new approach to repair a defective gene in blood-forming stem cells from patients with a rare genetic immunodeficiency disorder called X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD). After transplant into mice, the repaired stem cells developed into normally functioning white blood cells, suggesting the strategy could potentially be used to treat people with this disease.

  • NIH-Sponsored Expert Panel Issues Clinical Guidelines to Prevent Peanut Allergy

    January 5, 2017

    An expert panel sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, issued clinical guidelines today to aid health care providers in early introduction of peanut-containing foods to infants to prevent the development of peanut allergy.

December 2016

  • NIAID Research Aids Discovery of Genetic Immune Disorder

    December 23, 2016

    Investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and international colleagues have identified a genetic immune disorder characterized by increased susceptibility and poor immune control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and, in some cases, an EBV-associated cancer called Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The researchers studied two unrelated sets of siblings with similar immune problems and determined their symptoms were likely caused by a lack of CD70, a protein found on the surface of several types of immune cells.

  • NIH-Supported Scientists Accelerate Immune Response to Tuberculosis in Mice

    December 22, 2016

    WHAT:New research findings provide insight into the immune system pathways that may be key to developing an effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine. The study, to be published Thursday in the journal Nature Communications, was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Shortened Treatment for Middle Ear Infection is Less Effective than Standard Course

    December 21, 2016

    A five-day antimicrobial treatment regimen for middle ear infections in young children is inferior to the standard 10-day regimen, according to newly published research in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM). Middle ear infections (or “acute otitis media”) are common childhood illnesses often caused by bacteria and usually treated with antibiotics. However, overuse or inappropriate use of antibiotics (for example, to treat viral infections of the middle ear) can accelerate the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  • NIH Launches First Large Trial of a Long-Acting Injectable Drug for HIV Prevention

    December 20, 2016

    The first large-scale clinical trial of a long-acting injectable drug for HIV prevention began today. The study, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, will examine whether a long-acting form of the investigational anti-HIV drug cabotegravir injected once every 8 weeks can safely protect men and transgender women from HIV infection at least as well as the anti-HIV medication Truvada taken daily as an oral tablet.

  • NIH Scientists Develop New Mouse Model to Study Salmonella Meningitis

    December 9, 2016

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have established in mice a way to study potentially life-threatening meningitis caused by Salmonella. Bacterial meningitis happens when bacteria infect the central nervous system (CNS), causing a serious disease that can be life-threatening and difficult to diagnose and treat. Patients who survive often have permanent brain damage.

  • NIH Statement on World AIDS Day 2016

    December 1, 2016

    Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesCarl W. Dieffenbach, Ph.D., Director, Division of AIDS, NIAID

November 2016

  • NIAID-Sponsored Study to Assess Shorter-Duration Antibiotics in Children

    November 28, 2016

    Physicians at five U.S. medical centers are planning to enroll up to 400 children in a clinical trial to evaluate whether a shorter course of antibiotics—five days instead of 10—is effective at treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children who show improvement after the first few days of taking antibiotics.

  • First New HIV Vaccine Efficacy Study in Seven Years Has Begun

    November 27, 2016

    The first HIV vaccine efficacy study to launch anywhere in seven years is now testing whether an experimental vaccine regimen safely prevents HIV infection among South African adults. The study, called HVTN 702, involves a new version of the only HIV vaccine candidate ever shown to provide some protection against the virus. HVTN 702 aims to enroll 5,400 men and women, making it the largest and most advanced HIV vaccine clinical trial to take place in South Africa, where more than 1,000 people become infected with HIV every day. 

  • NIAID-Supported Scientists Sequence, Explore the Genome of the River Blindness Parasite

    November 21, 2016

    Scientists have sequenced the genome of the parasitic worm responsible for causing onchocerciasis—an eye and skin infection more commonly known as river blindness.

  • NIAID-Supported Study Examines Vulnerability of Gonorrhea to Older Antibiotic Drug

    November 17, 2016

    A new clinical research study seeks to determine whether a rapid molecular diagnostic test can reliably identify gonorrhea infections that may be successfully treated with a single dose of an older antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. The study will enroll up to 381 men and women diagnosed with untreated Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • T-Cell Differences May Reveal Individuals’ Age, Susceptibility to Disease

    November 15, 2016

    Different cells of the human body differ greatly in structure and function. However, variation exists even among cells of one type. New research from investigators at the National Institutes of Health suggests the magnitude of such differences in T lymphocytes, or T cells, may indicate an individual’s age and genetic predisposition to disease. Learning more about so-called cell-to-cell expression variation, or CEV, may further illuminate how the immune system functions and one day serve as a diagnostic tool to help implement personalized medicine, according to the researchers.

  • NIH Scientists Identify Potent Antibody that Neutralizes Nearly All HIV Strains

    November 15, 2016

    Scientists from the National Institutes of Health have identified an antibody from an HIV-infected person that potently neutralized 98 percent of HIV isolates tested, including 16 of 20 strains resistant to other antibodies of the same class. The remarkable breadth and potency of this antibody, named N6, make it an attractive candidate for further development to potentially treat or prevent HIV infection, say the researchers.

  • Antibody VRC01 Safe, Only Modest Effect in Controlling HIV Without Antiretroviral Therapy

    November 9, 2016

    Infusions of an anti-HIV antibody known as VRC01 were shown to be safe and maintained intended antibody concentrations in the blood of people living with HIV, according to two related studies by scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG). The antibody modestly suppressed blood levels of HIV in people who stopped taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the delay in the reappearance of virus was not clinically significant.

  • Antibody Protects Against Fetal Disease in Mouse Model of Zika Infection

    November 7, 2016

    Administering a human antibody that neutralizes Zika virus to pregnant mice before or after Zika virus infection reduced levels of the virus in placental and fetal tissues and decreased fetal disease, new findings show. The work may aid development of vaccines and therapies for Zika virus infection, which can cause severe birth defects when it occurs during pregnancy.

  • Testing of Investigational Inactivated Zika Vaccine in Humans Begins

    November 7, 2016

    The first of five early stage clinical trials to test the safety and ability of an investigational Zika vaccine candidate called the Zika Purified Inactivated Virus (ZPIV) vaccine to generate an immune system response has begun at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) Clinical Trial Center in Silver Spring, Maryland. Scientists with WRAIR, part of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), developed the vaccine.

  • Two Genetic Markers that Predict Malaria Treatment Failure Found

    November 3, 2016

    A frontline malaria treatment that combines fast-acting dihydroartemisinin with long-lasting piperaquine is quickly losing power in Cambodia due to the rapid spread of drug-resistant parasites. The presence of piperaquine-resistant malaria parasites in several Cambodian provinces was confirmed earlier this year by National Institutes of Health researchers and their colleagues.

October 2016

  • Zika Infection Damages Mouse Testes, NIAID-Supported Study Finds

    October 31, 2016

    New research in male mice has revealed that Zika virus infection can break down and severely damage the animals’ testes. Whether these findings have any bearing on the potential impact of the virus on the reproductive health of infected men is unclear; however, the study findings suggest this is an important question to explore. Results from the study, conducted by researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, appear in Nature online October 31.

  • Skin Patch to Treat Peanut Allergy Shows Benefit in Children

    October 26, 2016

    A wearable patch that delivers small amounts of peanut protein through the skin shows promise for treating children and young adults with peanut allergy, with greater benefits for younger children, according to one-year results from an ongoing clinical trial. The treatment, called epicutaneous immunotherapy or EPIT, was safe and well-tolerated, and nearly all participants used the skin patch daily as directed.

  • NIAID Selects New Director for its Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

    October 25, 2016

    Emily Erbelding, M.D., M.P.H., an infectious disease physician with broad research and clinical experience in both government and academic medicine, has been named the new director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Large Increases in HIV Suppression Needed to Reduce New Infections in Critical Population

    October 19, 2016

    Achieving moderate reduction of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) will depend on significantly increasing the percentage of HIV-infected MSM whose viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels, according to a new mathematical model based on data from Baltimore. Access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are key to sustained HIV suppression, which dramatically reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to others.

  • Women Report Vaginal Ring for Preventing HIV Had Little Effect on Sexual Intercourse

    October 18, 2016

    Most women who used an experimental vaginal ring for HIV prevention report that the physical act of sex was largely unaffected by using the product, which is inserted monthly for continuous wear. This finding is among several insights gleaned about experiences of women who used the ring during the ASPIRE study, also known as MTN-020, announced today at the HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) meeting in Chicago.

  • NIH Scientists Uncover Genetic Explanation for Frustrating Syndrome

    October 17, 2016

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have identified a genetic explanation for a syndrome characterized by multiple frustrating and difficult-to-treat symptoms, including dizziness and lightheadedness, skin flushing and itching, gastrointestinal complaints, chronic pain, and bone and joint problems. Some people who experience these diverse symptoms have elevated levels of tryptase—a protein in the blood often associated with allergic reactions.

  • Scientists at NIH and Emory Achieve Sustained SIV Remission in Monkeys

    October 13, 2016

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Emory University have experimentally induced sustained remission of SIV, the simian form of HIV, in infected monkeys. The animals’ immune systems have been suppressing the virus to undetectable levels for as long as 23 months since the monkeys completed an investigational treatment regimen. In addition, the regimen has led to the near-complete replenishment of key immune cells that SIV had destroyed, something unachievable with antiretroviral therapy (ART) alone. The findings will be published in the Oct.

  • Study Finds Ebola Treatment ZMapp Holds Promise, Although Results Not Definitive

    October 12, 2016

    A clinical trial to evaluate the experimental Ebola treatment ZMapp found it to be safe and well-tolerated; however, because of the waning Ebola epidemic, the study enrolled too few people to determine definitively whether it is a better treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD) than the best available standard of care alone. The findings from the randomized, controlled trial known as PREVAIL II appear in the October 13th issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

  • NIAID-Supported Research Expands Number of Publicly Available Mouse Mutations

    October 5, 2016

    Genetically engineered mice serve as valuable models of human disease, contributing to major medical breakthroughs. Often, biomedical researchers must develop unique genetically modified strains of mice for experimentation, a costly and time-consuming process. Now, more researchers in fields from immunology to cancer may be able to save time and money by acquiring genetic material from a repository of previously engineered strains.

  • NIAID-Sponsored Study Finds Factors that Influence Asthma Severity in Inner-City Children

    October 5, 2016

    In a novel study of 717 children between ages 6 and 17, researchers have identified major factors associated with asthma severity in children from inner-city communities. They found that poor lung function, sensitivity to certain inhaled allergens, and exposure to second-hand smoke were important factors affecting asthma severity. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) funded the work with additional support from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, both parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

September 2016

  • Immune System Oxidant Could be Key to Inactivating Prions

    September 29, 2016

    A product that mimics the natural oxidative killing action of human immune cells against bacteria, viruses, and fungi also can inactivate prions and other proteins, some of which are thought to be important in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers. Prions are deadly protein-based pathogens that are extremely difficult to inactivate; recommended decontamination treatments often are dangerous to people or damaging to surfaces, such as those on surgical devices.

  • Media Availability: Federal Officials Outline Development Pathways to a Zika Vaccine

    September 28, 2016

    A safe and effective vaccine to protect against Zika virus infection is essential and should be feasible to develop, according to a commentary in the September 29th print issue of The New England Journal of Medicine by Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); Hilary D. Marston, M.D., of NIAID; Nicole Lurie, M.D., M.S.P.H., Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; and Luciana L. Borio, M.D., acting chief scientist, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The federal officials describe three potential strategies for conducting Zika vaccine clinical trials with each strategy dependent on disease incidence and likelihood of generating reliable data.

  • Experimental Zika Virus DNA Vaccines Protective in Monkeys

    September 22, 2016

    Two experimental Zika virus DNA vaccines developed by National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists protected monkeys against Zika infection after two doses, according to a study published in Science. One of those vaccines is being evaluated in a Phase 1 human trial now under way in three U.S. locations to evaluate the vaccine’s safety and ability to generate immune responses in people.

  • NIH Scientists Detail Pathways for Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance

    September 20, 2016

    Researchers must address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance and stay ahead of the inevitable future emergencies of resistant bacteria, according to physicians and scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. Writing in JAMA, the authors stress the urgent need for new strategies to identify and develop new antibiotic drug candidates and vaccines and other interventions to prevent bacterial infections.

  • Infant Gut Microbiome Appears to Shape Allergy Risk by Altering Immune Responses

    September 12, 2016

    The microbial communities, or microbiota, that naturally colonize the digestive tract in very young infants can affect their risk of later developing childhood allergies and asthma. Scientists now have identified a specific type of microbiota composition and corresponding metabolic environment in the neonatal gut that appears to influence immune cell populations and promote allergy and asthma development. The work was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • NIH-Funded Researchers Find Signs TB Can Persist in Lungs Despite Treatment

    September 6, 2016

    It has been known that the microbe that causes TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can persist in the lungs even after patient tissue samples test negative for the bacteria. In new research appearing in Nature Medicine, intramural researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, together with NIAID grantees, found through the use of positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scanning that TB lesions can remain in the lungs long after treatment with antibiotics has been completed.

August 2016

  • NIH-Supported Researchers Develop Novel System to Grow Norovirus in Intestinal Cells

    August 25, 2016

    For the first time, researchers have succeeded in culturing norovirus in human intestinal cells, a breakthrough that could help scientists develop novel therapeutics and vaccines against the debilitating effects of the virus.

  • Monkeys with Sudan ebolavirus Treated Successfully

    August 22, 2016

    Scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have successfully treated monkeys several days after the animals were infected with Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV). The study is important, according to the researchers, because no proven treatments against SUDV exist and little is known about the window of opportunity for treating the infection.

  • NIH Explores Connection Between Ebola Survival and Co-Infection with Malaria Parasites

    August 16, 2016

    People infected with Ebola virus were 20 percent more likely to survive if they were co-infected with malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites, according to data collected at an Ebola diagnostic laboratory in Liberia in 2014-15. Moreover, greater numbers of Plasmodium parasites correlated with increased rates of Ebola survival, according to a dozen collaborating research groups in the new study, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

  • Oral Immunotherapy Is Safe, Effective Treatment for Peanut-Allergic Preschoolers, Study Suggests

    August 10, 2016

    Nearly 80 percent of peanut-allergic preschool children successfully incorporated peanut-containing foods into their diets after receiving peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT), a clinical trial has found. Peanut OIT involves eating small, gradually increasing amounts of peanut protein daily.

  • Three Vaccine Approaches Protect Monkeys Against Zika Infection

    August 4, 2016

    Three different investigational Zika virus vaccine platforms—an inactivated virus vaccine, a DNA-based vaccine, and an adenovirus vector-based vaccine—protected against infection, induced immune responses, and produced no adverse side effects when tested in rhesus macaques challenged with the Zika virus, according to findings appearing August 4 in the journal Science.

  • NIH Begins Testing Investigational Zika Vaccine in Humans

    August 3, 2016

    ​The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has launched a clinical trial of a vaccine candidate intended to prevent Zika virus infection. The early-stage study will evaluate the experimental vaccine’s safety and ability to generate an immune system response in participants.

July 2016

  • NIH-Funded Scientists Identify Immunological Profiles of People Who Make Powerful HIV Antibodies

    July 29, 2016

    People living with HIV who naturally produce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that may help suppress the virus have different immunological profiles than people who do not, researchers report. While bNAbs cannot completely clear HIV infections in people who have already acquired the virus, many scientists believe a successful preventive HIV vaccine must induce bNAbs

  • Zika Infection Is Caused by One Virus Serotype, NIH Study Finds

    July 29, 2016

    Vaccination against a single strain of Zika virus should be sufficient to protect against genetically diverse strains of the virus, according to a study conducted by investigators from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); Washington University in St. Louis; and Emory University in Atlanta.

  • Studies in Mice Provide Insights into Antibody-Zika Virus Interactions

    July 27, 2016

    In research that could inform prophylactic treatment approaches for pregnant women at risk of Zika virus infection, investigators conducted experiments in mice and identified six Zika virus antibodies, including four that neutralize African, Asian and American strains of the mosquito-borne virus.

  • NIH Launches Early-Stage Yellow Fever Vaccine Trial

    July 27, 2016

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has begun an early-stage clinical trial of an investigational vaccine designed to protect against yellow fever virus.

  • Vaccine Strategy Induces Antibodies that Can Target Multiple Influenza Viruses

    July 22, 2016

    WHAT: Scientists have identified three types of vaccine-induced antibodies that can neutralize diverse strains of influenza virus that infect humans. The discovery will help guide development of a universal influenza vaccine, according to investigators at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), both part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and collaborators who conducted the research. The findings appear in the July 21st online edition of Cell.

  • Immune-Enhancing Treatment May Destabilize HIV Reservoirs

    July 21, 2016

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to an undetectable level in most chronically infected people, it cannot eliminate reservoirs of HIV that persist in latently infected immune cells.

  • NIH Scientists Discover that Defective HIV DNA Can Encode HIV-Related Proteins

    July 18, 2016

    Investigators from the National Institutes of Health have discovered that cells from HIV-infected people whose virus is suppressed with treatment harbor defective HIV DNA that can nevertheless be transcribed into a template for producing HIV-related proteins.

  • HIV Therapy for Breastfeeding Mothers Can Virtually Eliminate Transmission to Babies

    July 18, 2016

    For HIV-infected mothers whose immune system is in good health, taking a three-drug antiretroviral regimen during breastfeeding essentially eliminates HIV transmission by breast milk to their infants, according to results from a large clinical trial conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and India.

  • Vaginal Ring May Cut HIV Infection Risk if Used Consistently

    July 18, 2016

    A new exploratory analysis of data from the ASPIRE study has found that using a drug-infused vaginal ring most or all of the time reduced the risk of HIV infection in women by at least 56 percent. This finding is being reported today at a press briefing at the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) in Durban, South Africa, and will be presented in more detail tomorrow in a lecture at the conference.

  • NIH Expands Investment in HIV Cure Research

    July 13, 2016

    The National Institutes of Health has awarded approximately $30 million in annual funding over the next five years to six research collaborations working to advance basic medical science toward an HIV cure. The awards comprise the second iteration of the Martin Delaney Collaboratory: Towards an HIV-1 Cure program and are a part of President Barack Obama’s pledge to invest in HIV cure research.

  • HIV Vaccine Research Requires Unprecedented Path

    July 12, 2016

    The development of an effective vaccine to prevent HIV infections would represent a critical step toward ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus far, the only large clinical trial for an HIV vaccine to show promise was the RV144 study conducted in Thailand in 2009, which resulted in a modest 31 percent reduction in infection. Researchers are working to improve on the results of RV144 and also have launched efforts to create vaccines that induce broadly neutralizing antibodies that can block a wide range of HIV variants.

  • PREVAIL Treatment Trial for Men with Persistent Ebola Viral RNA in Semen Opens in Liberia

    July 5, 2016

    The Partnership for Research on Ebola Virus in Liberia (PREVAIL), a U.S.-Liberia joint Clinical Research Partnership, today announced the opening of PREVAIL IV, a treatment trial for men who have survived Ebola virus disease (EVD) but continue to have evidence of Ebola virus genetic material, RNA, in their semen.

June 2016

  • Zika Virus Infection May Be Prolonged in Pregnancy

    June 29, 2016

    Zika virus infection confers protection against future infection in monkeys, but lingers in the body of pregnant animals for prolonged periods of time, according to research funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The findings appear in the June 28 issue of Nature Communications.

  • Zika Vaccines Protect Mice from Infection

    June 28, 2016

    A single dose of either of two experimental Zika vaccines fully protected mice challenged with Zika virus four or eight weeks after receiving the inoculations. The research, conducted by investigators supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, suggests that similar vaccines for people could be similarly protective.

  • NIH-Supported Study Pinpoints Origin of 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic

    June 28, 2016

    Researchers have used genetic sequencing to show that the 2009 global H1N1 influenza pandemic began in central Mexico, originating in pigs and spreading to humans. Mexico is not typically considered a source of novel influenza strains. The new findings appear online in the journal eLIFE. They shed light on how the novel virus evolved and stress the need for improved influenza surveillance. The research was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Gene Sequences Reveal Global Variations in Malaria Parasites

    June 27, 2016

    Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) parasites, which cause a debilitating form of malaria, are yielding their secrets to an international team of researchers funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. In the largest such effort to date, the team determined complete genomes of nearly 200 P. vivaxstrains that recently infected people in eight countries. Comparative analysis showed the parasites clustered into four genetically distinct populations that provide insights into the movement of P.

  • NIH Scientists Decode How Anthrax Toxin Proteins Might Help Treat Cancerous Tumors

    June 27, 2016

    Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), all parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), describe how combining engineered anthrax toxin proteins and existing chemotherapy drugs could potentially yield a therapy to reduce or eliminate cancerous tumors.

  • NIH Launches Large Study of Pregnant Women in Areas Affected by Zika Virus

    June 21, 2016

    The National Institutes of Health and Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz (Fiocruz), a national scientific research organization linked to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, have begun a multi-country study to evaluate the magnitude of health risks that Zika virus infection poses to pregnant women and their developing fetuses and infants. The study is opening in Puerto Rico and will expand to several locations in Brazil, Colombia and other areas that are experiencing active local transmission of the virus.

  • NIH-Developed Crowdsourcing Platform Makes Public Gene Expression Data More Accessible

    June 20, 2016

    WHAT:  Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, have developed a free online platform that uses a crowdsourcing approach to make public gene expression data more accessible to biomedical researchers without computational expertise. They describe the platform, called OMics Compendia Commons (OMiCC), in the June 20 online issue of Nature Biotechnology.

  • NIAID Selects Director of Division of Intramural Research

    June 14, 2016

    Steven M. Holland, M.D., has been named Director of the Division of Intramural Research (DIR) at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. He will lead the institute’s efforts to conduct basic and clinical research in a wide range of disciplines related to immunology, allergy and infectious diseases.

  • Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy Is Nutritionally Safe, NIH-Funded Study Shows

    June 10, 2016

    ​Introducing peanut-containing foods during infancy as a peanut allergy prevention strategy does not compromise the duration of breastfeeding or affect children’s growth and nutritional intakes, new findings show. The work, funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, is published online on June 10 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

May 2016

  • Novel Strategy May Improve Seasonal Flu Vaccine Effectiveness

    May 23, 2016

    New findings describe a novel strategy for predicting how circulating influenza viruses will evolve, an approach that may help scientists create better seasonal influenza vaccines.

  • Zika Virus Protein Could Be Vaccine Target

    May 19, 2016

    A viral protein known as NS5 is a promising target for vaccines against Zika and related viruses, according to National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and colleagues at Mount Sinai’s Icahn School of Medicine.

  • NIH Statement on HIV Vaccine Awareness Day 2016

    May 18, 2016

    Advances in HIV/AIDS research have given us the opportunity to transform the lives of those living with HIV while providing highly effective methods of preventing the infection. This progress has strengthened optimism for achieving a durable end to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

  • Large-Scale HIV Vaccine Trial to Launch in South Africa

    May 18, 2016

    An early-stage HIV vaccine clinical trial in South Africa has determined that an investigational vaccine regimen is safe and generates comparable immune responses to those reported in a landmark 2009 study showing that a vaccine can protect people from HIV infection.

  • NIH-Led Team Discovers New HIV Vaccine Target

    May 12, 2016

    A team led by scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has reported a research trifecta. They discovered a new vulnerable site on HIV for a vaccine to target, a broadly neutralizing antibody that binds to that target site, and how the antibody stops the virus from infecting a cell.

  • Zika Virus Damages Placenta, Kills Fetal Mice

    May 11, 2016

    Zika virus infects and crosses the placentas of pregnant mice and causes severe damage or death in fetal mice, report scientists funded by the National Institutes of Health.

  • Investigational Malaria Vaccine Protects Healthy U.S. Adults for More than One Year

    May 9, 2016

    An experimental malaria vaccine protected a small number of healthy, malaria-naïve adults in the United States from infection for more than one year after immunization, according to results from a Phase 1 trial described in the May 9th issue of Nature Medicine.

  • AIDS-Kaposi’s Sarcoma Study Ended

    May 5, 2016

    Enrollment into a clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) investigating two different strategies to treat limited-stage AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma was stopped due to futility—if continued, the study would be unlikely to detect a difference between the two study arms.

  • NIH Statement on World Asthma Day 2016

    May 3, 2016

    On World Asthma Day 2016, the National Institutes of Health reaffirms its commitment to support research to improve the lives of all people with asthma. NIH-funded research has advanced our understanding of asthma as a disease as well as the impact asthma has on the lives of those affected. 

April 2016

  • Cancer Drug May Treat Sepsis, Other Uncontrollable Immune Responses to Infection

    April 29, 2016

    Results from laboratory experiments and mouse studies suggest that small doses of drugs from a specific class of approved cancer medications called topoisomerase 1 (top1) inhibitors may protect against the overwhelming immune response to infection that sometimes leads to sepsis, a bacterial condition that kills as many as 500,000 people in the United States each year.

  • Single Antibody Infusions Provide Durable Protection Against HIV-Like Virus in Monkeys

    April 27, 2016

    A single antibody infusion can protect monkeys against infection with an HIV-like virus for up to 23 weeks, researchers have found. The study, published in Nature, was led by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and The Rockefeller University.

  • “Dirty Mouse” May Model Human Immune System More Accurately, NIH-Funded Study Suggests

    April 27, 2016

    Medical interventions that work well when tested in mouse models can fail when they advance to safety and efficacy testing in humans. One reason for this, scientists propose, may be the differences between immune system development in laboratory mice and humans. 

  • World Malaria Day 2016

    April 25, 2016

    On World Malaria Day 2016, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recognizes the considerable gains that have been made in reducing the global burden of malaria and renews our commitment to conducting and supporting the cutting-edge scientific research needed to end the scourge of this devastating mosquito-borne disease.

  • NIH Study Finds Factors that May Influence Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness

    April 19, 2016

    The long-held approach to predicting seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness may need to be revisited, new research suggests. Currently, seasonal flu vaccines are designed to induce high levels of protective antibodies against hemagglutinin (HA), a protein found on the surface of the influenza virus that enables the virus to enter a human cell and initiate infection.

  • Two-Vaccine Ebola Regimen Shows Promise in Early-Stage Clinical Trial

    April 19, 2016

    An immunization regimen using two Ebola vaccine candidates was safe and well-tolerated and induced an immune response in healthy adult volunteers in a Phase 1 clinical trial. Results from the study are described in the April 19th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

  • Islet Transplantation Restores Blood Sugar Awareness and Control in Type 1 Diabetes

    April 18, 2016

    New clinical trial results show that transplantation of pancreatic islets—cell clusters that contain insulin-producing cells—prevents severe, potentially life-threatening drops in blood sugar in people with type 1 diabetes.

  • Animal Study Paints Picture of the Earliest Immune Responses to HIV

    April 13, 2016

    New research in monkeys exposed to SIV, the monkey equivalent of HIV, suggests that the virus spreads rapidly in the body and triggers early host responses that suppress antiviral immunity, thus promoting viral replication. The study, published in Cell, provides a detailed view of the period between initial mucosal exposure to the virus and the point at which it becomes detectable in the blood.

  • NIH Study Finds Protein May Be Responsible for Damage in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    April 7, 2016

    Scientists have identified a protein that may be the cause of tissue damage in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), which affects as many as 56 of every 100,000 people in the United States. EoE is a disease in which white blood cells called eosinophils accumulate in the esophagus, often causing difficult or painful swallowing, nausea, vomiting and poor growth in children and adults.

  • NIH Launches Large Clinical Trials of Antibody-Based HIV Prevention

    April 7, 2016

    Enrollment has begun in the first of two multinational clinical trials of an intravenously delivered investigational antibody for preventing HIV infection. Known as the AMP Studies, for antibody-mediated prevention, the trials will test whether giving people an investigational anti-HIV antibody called VRC01 as an intravenous infusion every 8 weeks is safe, tolerable and effective at preventing HIV infection.

  • NIH Doctors Describe Severe Case of Ebola Virus Disease

    April 4, 2016

    For more than a month in 2015, a multidisciplinary team including infectious disease and critical care physicians and nurses, respiratory therapists and other specialists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) treated a critically ill patient who had contracted Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone. 

  • NIH Awards Six Grants to Explore How Combination Adjuvants Improve Vaccines

    April 4, 2016

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded six grants totaling $3.1 million to researchers exploring the molecular mechanisms behind combination vaccine adjuvants—substances that improve the effectiveness of vaccines. 

March 2016

  • Structure of Zika Virus Determined

    March 31, 2016

    A near-atomic level map of Zika virus shows its structure to be largely similar to that of dengue virus and other flaviviruses, but with a notable difference in one key surface protein, report scientists funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • NIH Statement on World Tuberculosis Day

    March 23, 2016

    On World Tuberculosis (TB) Day 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), reaffirms its commitment to researching ways to better understand, prevent, diagnose and treat TB. March 24 marks the day in 1882 when German microbiologist Robert Koch announced he had discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis(Mtb), the bacterium that causes TB—an airborne disease that most often attacks the lungs.

  • Blood Test Can Predict Risk of Developing Tuberculosis

    March 23, 2016

    One-third of the world’s population is thought to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), but just a small fraction ever develops symptomatic illness.

  • AIDS-Kaposi’s Sarcoma Study Changed Due to Drug Underperformance

    March 18, 2016

    A clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) comparing three advanced Kaposi’s sarcoma chemotherapy regimens in combination with antiretroviral treatment (ART) for patients with AIDS will no longer enroll participants in the study arm testing the oral chemotherapy drug etoposide.

  • Antibodies from Unconventional B Cells Less Likely to Neutralize HIV, NIH Study Finds

    March 17, 2016

    Antibodies derived from a type of immune cell found in unusually high numbers in HIV-infected individuals with chronically uncontrolled virus levels are less effective at neutralizing HIV than antibodies derived from a different type of immune cell more common in people without HIV, scientists report. 

  • Experimental Dengue Vaccine Protects All Recipients in Virus Challenge Study

    March 16, 2016

    A clinical trial in which volunteers were infected with dengue virus six months after receiving either an experimental dengue vaccine developed by scientists from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) or a placebo injection yielded starkly contrasting results. All 21 volunteers who received the vaccine, TV003, were protected from infection, while all 20 placebo recipients developed infection.

  • NIAID to Fund Further Study of Dapivirine Vaginal Ring for HIV Prevention

    March 13, 2016

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced today that it would move forward with an open-label extension study of an HIV prevention tool for women: a silicone ring that continuously releases the experimental antiretroviral drug dapivirine in the vagina.

  • Scientists Discover Potential Bacterial Indicator for Intestinal Disease in Premature Infants

    March 8, 2016

    Scientists have discovered a microbial biomarker that may indicate which premature infants are at increased risk for developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a serious intestinal disease that affects approximately 10 percent of premature infants and commonly leads to infant death. 

  • Omalizumab Decreases Colds in Inner-City Children with Asthma, NIH Study Reports

    March 5, 2016

    Treatment with omalizumab significantly decreases the number of colds in inner-city children with allergic asthma, researchers reported at a press conference today at the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI) 2016 Annual Meeting in Los Angeles.

  • NIAID Seeks Public Comment on Update to Food Allergy Guidelines

    March 4, 2016

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, is seeking public comment on a draft update to the 2010 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States (link is external) to address the prevention of peanut allergy. 

  • Benefits of Peanut Allergy Prevention Strategy Persist After One-Year Peanut Avoidance

    March 4, 2016

    ​The benefits of regularly consuming peanut-containing foods early in life to prevent the development of peanut allergy persist even after stopping peanut consumption for one year, new clinical trial findings show. 

February 2016

  • Experimental Ebola Antibody Protects Monkeys

    February 25, 2016

    Scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and colleagues have discovered that a single monoclonal antibody—a protein that attacks viruses—isolated from a human Ebola virus disease survivor protected non-human primates when given as late as five days after lethal Ebola infection. 

  • Maraviroc-Containing Regimens Safe, Tolerable When Taken for HIV Prevention

    February 24, 2016

    Maraviroc, an oral drug used to treat HIV infection, is safe and well-tolerated when taken daily as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection by HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased risk for acquiring HIV.

  • NIH-Funded Study Finds Critical Population Adheres to PrEP with Coordinated Care

    February 24, 2016

    New findings suggest that black men who have sex with men (BMSM) with access to a novel coordinated care program can adhere to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a medication regimen that helps prevent HIV infection in uninfected individuals.

  • Experimental Ebola Vaccines Well Tolerated, Immunogenic in Phase 2 Study

    February 23, 2016

    Two investigational vaccines designed to protect against Ebola virus disease were well-tolerated and induced an immune response among 1,000 vaccinated participants in the Phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial called PREVAIL I.

  • Ebola Survivor Study Yields Insights on Complications of Disease

    February 23, 2016

    Preliminary findings from PREVAIL III, a study of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors being conducted in Liberia, indicate that both Ebola survivors and their close contacts have a high burden of illness. However, the prevalence of eye, musculoskeletal, and neurological complications was greater among the individuals who survived EVD.

  • Experimental Ebola Drug ZMapp May Benefit Patients, but Insufficient Data to be Certain, Study Finds

    February 23, 2016

    According to initial results from a randomized, controlled trial of the experimental Ebola treatment ZMapp, the monoclonal antibody cocktail was well-tolerated and showed promise. Due to decreasing incidence in Ebola, the study could not enroll enough volunteers to determine definitively whether it is a better treatment for Ebola virus disease (EVD) than supportive care only.

  • NIH-Funded Study Finds Effect of PrEP on Bone Density is Reversible

    February 23, 2016

    The slight loss in bone mineral density associated with HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) antiretroviral use is reversible in young adult patients who stop taking the drugs, according to findings presented by researchers today at the 23rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Boston.

  • Vaginal Ring Provides Partial Protection from HIV in Large Multinational Trial

    February 22, 2016

    A ring that continuously releases an experimental antiretroviral drug in the vagina safely provided a modest level of protection against HIV infection in women, a large clinical trial in four sub-Saharan African countries has found.

  • Tick Genome Reveals Secrets of a Successful Bloodsucker

    February 9, 2016

    With tenacity befitting their subject, an international team of nearly 100 researchers toiled for a decade and overcame tough technical challenges to decipher the genome of the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). 

  • NIH Seeks Research Applications to Study Zika in Pregnancy, Developing Fetus

    February 5, 2016

    The National Institutes of Health today announced its research priorities for studies to investigate how Zika virus infection affects reproduction, pregnancy and the developing fetus.  Zika virus currently is circulating in about 30 countries and territories, notably in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • NIH Scientists Discover Genetic Cause of Rare Allergy to Vibration

    February 3, 2016

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified a genetic mutation responsible for a rare form of inherited hives induced by vibration, also known as vibratory urticaria. Running, hand clapping, towel drying or even taking a bumpy bus ride can cause temporary skin rashes in people with this rare disorder.

January 2016

  • Ongoing HIV Replication Replenishes Viral Reservoirs During Therapy

    January 27, 2016

    In HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART), ongoing HIV replication in lymphoid tissues such as the lymph nodes helps maintain stores, or reservoirs, of the virus, a new study funded by the National Institutes of Health suggests.

  • NIH-Funded Study Suggests Potential to Predict Peanut Allergy Immunotherapy Outcomes

    January 25, 2016

    Oral immunotherapy for peanut allergy induces early, distinct changes in immune T-cell populations that potentially may help researchers determine which people will respond well to the therapy and which immune mechanisms are involved in the response, a new study suggests.

  • Dengue Vaccine Enters Phase 3 Trial in Brazil

    January 14, 2016

    A large-scale clinical trial to evaluate whether a candidate vaccine can prevent the mosquito-borne illness dengue fever has been launched in Brazil. The vaccine, TV003, was developed by scientists in the laboratory of Stephen Whitehead, Ph.D., at NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

  • NIH Experts Offer Lessons Learned from the 2014-2015 Ebola Outbreak

    January 14, 2016

    In a special issue on Ebola for the journal Clinical Trials, leading researchers from across the globe, including from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), describe in a series of articles the challenges of conducting ethically and scientifically sound clinical research during the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak in West Africa and lessons learned for future outbreaks.

  • New NIH Awards Will Support Development of Therapeutic Alternatives to Traditional Antibiotics

    January 11, 2016

    New NIH awards will support development of therapeutic alternatives to traditional antibiotics the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded approximately $5 million in funding for 24 research projects seeking to develop non-traditional therapeutics for bacterial infections to help address the growing health threat of antibiotic resistance.

  • Current Malaria Treatment Fails in Cambodia Due to Drug-Resistant Parasites

    January 7, 2016

    New findings from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), confirm dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Cambodia, has failed in certain provinces due to parasite resistance to artemisinin and piperaquine.

December 2015

November 2015

  • NIH Statement on World AIDS Day 2015

    November 30, 2015

    ​When the first cases of what would become known as AIDS were reported in 1981, scientists and physicians did not know the cause and had no therapies to treat those who were infected. Times have changed and today physicians can offer their patients highly effective medicines that work as both treatment and prevention. 

  • NIH Publishes Criteria for Research on Organ Transplantation Between People with HIV Infection

    November 25, 2015

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services published safeguards and criteria for research to assess the safety and effectiveness of solid organ transplantation from donors with HIV infection to recipients with HIV infection. 

  • NIH-Sponsored Clinical Trial of Chikungunya Vaccine Opens

    November 24, 2015

    An experimental vaccine to protect against the mosquito-borne illness chikungunya is being tested in a Phase 2 trial sponsored by the National Institutes of Health.

  • NIH Launches Initiative to Develop Long-Acting HIV Treatment and Prevention Tools

    November 18, 2015

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, launched a major initiative to advance novel approaches to treat and prevent HIV infections based on broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)

  • RSV Pediatric Vaccine Candidate Shows Promise in Early Clinical Trial

    November 5, 2015

    Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and colleagues  have developed a vaccine candidate to protect infants and young children against respiratory syncytial virus that appears to elicit a stronger protective immune response than the previous lead vaccine candidate.

October 2015

September 2015

August 2015

  • NIH Launches Human RSV Study

    August 26, 2015

    ​A new study will expose healthy adult volunteers to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Better understanding of how adults develop RSV infection and immune system responses to infection will help researchersdevelop and test future antivirals and vaccines to combat the virus. 

  • NIH Scientists and Colleagues Successfully Test MERS Vaccine in Monkeys and Camels

    August 19, 2015

    ​National Institutes of Health scientists and colleagues report that an experimental vaccine given six weeks before exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) fully protects rhesus macaques from disease.

  • NIH-Developed Epstein-Barr Virus Vaccine Elicits Potent Neutralizing Antibodies in Animals

    August 13, 2015

    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases researchers and their collaborators have developed an experimental, nanoparticle-based vaccine against Epstein-Barr virus that can induce potent neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated mice and nonhuman primates.

  • NIH-Funded Study Establishes Genomic Data Set on Lassa Virus

    August 13, 2015

    An international team of researchers has developed the largest genomic data set in the world on Lassa virus. The new genomic catalog contains viral genomes collected from patient samples in Sierra Leone and Nigeria, as well as field samples from the major animal reservoir of Lassa virus-the rodent Mastomys natalensis. 

  • Single Dose Ebola Vaccine is Safe and Effective in Monkeys against Outbreak Strain

    August 6, 2015

    National Institutes of Health scientists report that a single dose of an experimental Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine completely protects cynomolgus macaques against the current EBOV outbreak strain when given at least 7 days before exposure, and partially protects them if given 3 days prior.

July 2015

June 2015

May 2015

  • Starting Antiretroviral Treatment Early Improves Outcomes for HIV-Infected Individuals

    May 27, 2015

    ​Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and colleagues have identified 80 currently licensed drugs that demonstrated antiviral activity against Zaire ebolavirus in laboratory testing. 

  • HIV Reservoirs Remain Obstacles to Cure

    May 19, 2015

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven lifesaving for people infected with HIV; however, the medications are a lifelong necessity for most HIV-infected individuals and present practical, logistical, economic and health-related challenges. 

  • HIV Vaccine Awareness Day 2015

    May 18, 2015

    ​Vaccination has historically been the best method for protecting against and ultimately defeating mankind's most devastating infectious diseases. Although the path to developing a safe and effective HIV vaccine has so far been difficult, achieving this goal remains key to realizing a durable end to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. 

  • NYVAC-HIV Vaccine Used in the HVTN 092 and HVTN 096 Clinical Trials

    May 13, 2015

    ​The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases  has learned that NYVAC-HIV, an investigational HIV vaccine previously administered in two small HIV vaccine studies, was contaminated with a bacterium called Mycoplasma hyorhinis.

  • NIAID Recognizes Significant Milestone in Ebola Vaccine Study

    May 7, 2015

    In partnership with the Liberian Ministry of Health, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the National Institutes of Health is pleased to announce the successful enrollment of all 1,500 planned participants in the Phase 2 portion of the Ebola vaccine clinical trial known as PREVAIL (Partnership for Research on Ebola Vaccines in Liberia).

  • Mobile Phone Microscope Rapidly Detects Parasite Levels in Blood

    May 6, 2015

    Scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the University of California, Berkeley, and colleagues have developed a mobile phone microscope to measure blood levels of the parasitic filarial worm Loa loa. 

  • NIH Statement on World Asthma Day 2015

    May 5, 2015

    On World Asthma Day 2015, the National Institutes of Health stands with the international community to renew our commitment to advance our understanding of asthma and develop effective strategies to manage and prevent the disease.

April 2015

  • World Malaria Day

    April 25, 2015

    On World Malaria Day 2015, the National Institutes of Health reaffirms its longstanding commitment to reducing the global burden of this devastating and persistent disease. 

  • NIH-Funded Research Leads to Approval of Drug for Acute Radiation Injury

    April 21, 2015

    ​The Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of filgrastim (trade name Neupogen) to increase survival of people acutely exposed to high doses of radiation that damage the bone marrow, for example, as a result of a nuclear power plant accident or terrorist attack. 

  • NIH Launches Largest Clinical Trial Focused on HIV-Related Cardiovascular Disease

    April 15, 2015

    Researchers have begun enrolling participants in a multicenter international clinical trial to test whether statin administration can reduce the risk for major adverse cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, strokes, and heart disease, in people with HIV infection. 

  • NIH, South African Medical Research Council Award $8 Million in HIV, TB Grants

    April 13, 2015

    ​The National Institutes of Health and the South African Medical Research Council are awarding 31 grants to U.S. and South African scientists to support research targeting HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and HIV-related co-morbidities and cancers.

  • NIH Funds Nine Antimicrobial Resistance Diagnostics Projects

    April 9, 2015

    ​The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has awarded more than $11 million in first-year funding for nine research projects supporting enhanced diagnostics to rapidly detect antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. 

  • Anti-HIV Antibody Shows Promise in First Human Study

    April 8, 2015

    A single infusion of an experimental anti-HIV antibody called 3BNC117 resulted in significantly decreased HIV levels that persisted for as long as 28 days in HIV-infected individuals, according to Phase 1 clinical trial findings published online in Nature. 

  • NIH-Funded Scientists Identify Receptor for Asthma-Associated Virus

    April 6, 2015

    ​Scientists funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have identified a cellular receptor for rhinovirus C, a cold-causing virus that is strongly associated with severe asthma attacks. 

  • Experimental Ebola Vaccine Safe, Prompts Immune Response

    April 1, 2015

    ​An early-stage clinical trial of an experimental Ebola vaccine conducted at the National Institutes of Health and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research found that the vaccine, called VSV-ZEBOV, was safe and elicited robust antibody responses in all 40 of the healthy adults who received it.

March 2015

  • Ebola Test Vaccines Appear Safe in Phase 2 Liberian Clinical Trial

    March 26, 2015

    Two experimental Ebola vaccines appear to be safe based on evaluation in more than 600 people in Liberia who participated in the first stage of the Partnership for Research on Ebola Vaccines in Liberia (PREVAIL) Phase 2/3 clinical trial. 

  • NIH Study Finds No Evidence of Accelerated Ebola Virus Evolution in West Africa

    March 26, 2015

    The Ebola virus in the ongoing West African outbreak appears to be stable-that is, it does not appear to be mutating more rapidly than viruses in previous Ebola outbreaks, and that is reassuring," said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

  • NIH Statement on World TB Day 2015

    March 24, 2015

    World TB Day, March 24, marks the day in 1882 when German microbiologist Robert Koch announced his discovery of the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). Despite the considerable progress made since that discovery, TB remains one of the world's deadliest diseases.

  • NIH Researchers Identify Red Blood Cell Traits Associated with Malaria Risk in Children

    March 24, 2015

    Researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have determined that certain red blood cell traits in children can increase or decrease their risk for malaria. The findings could help identify future targets for new malaria drugs and vaccines. 

  • NIH-Funded Researchers Find Off-Patent Antibiotics Effectively Combat MRSA Skin Infections

    March 19, 2015

    Researchers funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have found that two common antibiotic treatments work equally well against bacterial skin infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquired outside of hospital settings.

  • NIH Researchers Develop Database on Healthy Immune System

    March 12, 2015

    ​An extensive database identifying immune traits, such as how immune cell function is regulated at the genetic level in healthy people, is reported by researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and their collaborators. 

  • NIH-Led Study to Assess Community-Based Hepatitis C Treatment in Washington, D.C.

    March 6, 2015

    National Institutes of Health  launched a clinical trial in Washington, DC, to examine whether primary care physicians and other health care providers can use a new antiviral therapy as effectively as specialist physicians to treat people with hepatitis C virus infection. 

February 2015

January 2015

December 2014

November 2014

October 2014

  • Model by NIH Grantees Explains Why HIV Prevention Dosing Differs by Sex

    October 30, 2014

    A mathematical model developed by NIH grantees predicts that women must take the antiretroviral medication Truvada daily to prevent HIV infection via vaginal sex, whereas just two doses per week can protect men from HIV infection via anal sex.

  • NIH-Led Study Explores Prevention of Heart Disease in HIV-Infected People

    October 28, 2014

    ​The National Institutes of Health has launched a clinical trial to assess the effects of aspirin and cholesterol-lowering drugs, or statins, on preventing cardiovascular disease in people with long-term HIV infections. This group, which includes people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) as well as "elite controllers" who can limit the virus without ART, have a higher risk of developing heart disease and stroke compared to the general population. The study is funded by NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

  • BULLETIN: In South Africa, RV144 HIV Vaccine Regimen Induces Immune Responses Similar to Those Seen in Thailand

    October 28, 2014

    ​The investigational HIV vaccine regimen that showed a modestly protective effect in the landmark RV144 clinical trial conducted in Thailand was shown to be safe and elicited robust immune responses when tested among 100 healthy adults in South Africa, according to findings presented today at the HIVR4P conference in Cape Town, South Africa. The results from the trial, called HVTN 097, bode well for plans to test a similar experimental vaccine regimen in South Africa beginning in 2015 in an effort to build upon the results of the RV144 study.

  • NIH Begins Early Human Clinical Trial of VSV Ebola Vaccine

    October 22, 2014

    ​Human testing of a second investigational Ebola vaccine candidate is under way at the National Institutes of Health's Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland.

  • NIH Grants License Agreement for Candidate Ebola Vaccines

    October 15, 2014

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases today announced a new license agreement aimed at advancing dual-purpose candidate vaccines to protect against rabies and Ebola viruses. 

  • Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    October 8, 2014

    Researchers have found that gene therapy using a modified delivery system, or vector, can restore the immune systems of children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1).

  • NIH-Supported Scientists Unveil Structure, Dynamics of Key HIV Molecules

    October 8, 2014

    New research has illuminated the movement and complete structure of the spikes on HIV that the virus uses to bind to the cells it infects.

  • Candidate H7N9 Avian Flu Vaccine Works Better with Adjuvant

    October 7, 2014

    ​An experimental vaccine to protect people against H7N9 avian influenza prompted immune responses in 59 percent of volunteers who received two injections at the lowest dosage tested but only if the vaccine was mixed with adjuvant. 

September 2014

August 2014

  • NIH to Launch Human Safety Study of Ebola Vaccine Candidate

    August 28, 2014

    ​Initial human testing of an investigational vaccine to prevent Ebola virus disease will begin next week by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • HIV Antibodies Block Infection by Reservoir-Derived Virus in Laboratory Study

    August 26, 2014

    A laboratory study led by scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases lends further weight to the potential effectiveness of passive immunotherapy to suppress HIV in the absence of drug treatment.

  • NIH Scientists Establish New Monkey Model of Severe MERS-CoV Disease

    August 21, 2014

    NIH scientists have found that Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in marmosets closely mimics the severe pneumonia experienced by people infected with MERS-CoV, giving scientists the best animal model for testing potential treatments.

  • Test Reliably Detects Inherited Immune Deficiency in Newborns

    August 20, 2014

    A newborn screening test for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) reliably identifies infants with this life-threatening inherited condition, leading to prompt treatment and high survival rates, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health. Researchers led by Jennifer Puck, M.D., of the University of California, San Francisco, also found that SCID affects approximately 1 in 58,000 newborns, indicating that the disorder is less rare than previously thought.

  • Experimental Chikungunya Vaccine Induces Robust Antibody Response

    August 14, 2014

    An experimental vaccine to prevent the mosquito-borne viral illness chikungunya elicited neutralizing antibodies in volunteers who participated in an early-stage clinical trial conducted by researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

  • Ebola Outbreak Highlights Global Disparities in Healthcare Resources

    August 13, 2014

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease that has claimed more than 1,000 lives in West Africa this year poses a serious, ongoing threat to that region: the spread to capital cities and Nigeria..

  • NIH-Led Scientists Boost Potential of Passive Immunization Against HIV

    August 13, 2014

    Scientists are pursuing injections or intravenous infusions of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bNAbs) as a strategy for preventing HIV infection.

  • NIH and Italian Scientists Develop Nasal Test for Human Prion Disease

    August 6, 2014

    A nasal brush test can rapidly and accurately diagnose Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, an incurable and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disorder, according to a study by National Institutes of Health scientists and their Italian colleagues.

July 2014

June 2014

May 2014

April 2014

March 2014

February 2014

January 2014

December 2013

  • Testosterone-Regulated Genes May Affect Vaccine-Induced Immunity

    December 23, 2013

    A new study has identified a link between certain genes affected by testosterone and antibody responses to an influenza vaccine. The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, suggest that testosterone levels may partially explain why men often have weaker responses to vaccines than women.

  • Animal Vaccine Study Yields Insights That May Advance HIV Vaccine Research

    December 18, 2013

    A vaccine study in monkeys designed to identify measurable signs that the animals were protected from infection by SIV, the monkey version of HIV, as well as the mechanism of such protection has yielded numerous insights that may advance HIV vaccine research.

  • Researchers Identify Genetic Marker of Resistance to Key Malaria Drug

    December 18, 2013

    An international team of researchers has discovered a way to identify, at a molecular level, malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites that are resistant to artemisinin, the key drug for treating this disease.

  • NIH Names Leadership, Research Units for Restructured HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks

    December 16, 2013

    Principal investigators and clinical trials units (CTUs) have been chosen to lead and conduct the research of five HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks through 2021. The effort is directed and funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • Dust in Homes with Dogs May Protect Against Allergies, Asthma

    December 16, 2013

    A new study suggests that exposure to dust from homes with dogs may alter the immune response to allergens and other asthma triggers by affecting the composition of the gut microbiome-the community of microbes that naturally colonize the digestive tract.

  • Researchers Discover Common Cell Wall Component in Chlamydia Bacteria

    December 11, 2013

    Researchers studying Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria, which cause the sexually transmitted infection chlamydia as well as infectious blindness, have confirmed that the bacteria contain-and, in fact, cannot function without-the common molecule peptidoglycan, a structural component found in the cell wall of many bacteria.

  • H7N9 Influenza Virus Not Adapted to Efficient Human-to-Human Transmission

    December 6, 2013

    The avian H7N9 influenza virus that emerged earlier this year in China is poorly adapted for sustained transmission between humans, suggesting that the current form of the virus is unlikely to cause a pandemic, according to a new study led by Ian A. Wilson, Ph.D., and James C. Paulson, Ph.D., of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI).

  • NIH-Funded Scientists Describe How Mosquitoes Are Attracted to Humans

    December 5, 2013

    Scientists at the University of California, Riverside have shown that certain mosquito nerve cells, known as cpA neurons, cause mosquitoes to be attracted to humans by detecting exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) and odors emitted from human skin.

  • NIH Statement on World AIDS Day 2013

    December 1, 2013

    In the 25 years that have passed since the first annual commemoration of World AIDS Day, extraordinary scientific progress has been made in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

November 2013

October 2013

  • NIH-Funded Scientists Reveal Structure of HIV Protein Key to Cell Entry

    October 31, 2013

    Using protein engineering and two different cutting-edge structural biology imaging techniques, researchers have developed a detailed picture of the protein largely responsible for enabling HIV to enter human immune cells and cause infection.

  • NIH Scientists Develop Candidate Vaccine Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    October 31, 2013

    An experimental vaccine to protect against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a leading cause of illness and hospitalization among very young children, elicited high levels of RSV-specific antibodies when tested in animals, according to a report in the journal Science. Early-stage human clinical trials of the candidate vaccine are planned.

  • HIV Antibody Infusions Show Promise for Treating SHIV-Infected Monkeys

    October 30, 2013

    Two teams are reporting results from experiments in which they infused powerful anti-HIV antibodies into monkeys infected with an HIV-like virus, rapidly reducing the amount of virus, or viral load, to undetectable levels, where it remained for extended periods.

  • NIH Officials Map Route Toward an AIDS-Free Generation

    October 21, 2013

    Ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic and achieving an AIDS-free generation will require optimizing the implementation of existing HIV prevention and treatment tools as well as discovering new ones, according to a new commentary from Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., and colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

  • NIH-Funded Researchers Identify New Insect-Repelling Compounds

    October 2, 2013

    Researchers have identified four compounds that elicited a similar avoidance response in fruit flies and mosquitoes as their response to the insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide, commonly known as DEET. These compounds may one day be developed into preferred alternatives to DEET that could be used in combination with other strategies to control insects and prevent transmission of the diseases they carry.

September 2013

  • Study Evaluates Population-Wide Testing, Early Treatment for HIV Prevention

    September 30, 2013

    A study in South Africa and Zambia will assess whether house-to-house voluntary HIV testing and prompt treatment of HIV infection, along with other proven HIV prevention measures, can substantially reduce the number of new HIV infections across communities.

  • NIH Expands Nationwide Network of Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units

    September 26, 2013

    A nationwide group of institutions that conducts clinical trials of promising candidate vaccines and therapies for infectious diseases, known as the Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs), has been awarded nine contracts to strengthen and broaden the scope of its research.

  • NIH Launches First Phase of Microbiome Cloud Project

    September 26, 2013

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the first phase of the Microbiome Cloud Project (MCP), a collaboration with Amazon Web Services that aims to improve access to and analysis of data from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP).

  • NIH Begins Testing H7N9 Avian Influenza Vaccine Candidate

    September 18, 2013

    Researchers at nine sites nationwide have begun testing in humans an investigational H7N9 avian influenza vaccine. The two concurrent Phase II clinical trials, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, are designed to gather critical information about the safety of the candidate vaccine and the immune system responses it induces when administered at different dosages and with or without adjuvants, substances designed to boost the body's immune response to vaccination.

  • NIH Clinical Study Establishes Human Model of Influenza Pathogenesis

    September 13, 2013

    A National Institutes of Health (NIH) clinical study of healthy adult volunteers who consented to be infected with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus under carefully controlled conditions has provided researchers with concrete information about the minimum dose of virus needed to produce mild-to-moderate illness.

  • NIH Scientists Develop New Tests to Detect Drug-Resistant Malaria

    September 10, 2013

    Researchers have developed two tests that can discern within three days whether the malaria parasites in a given patient will be resistant or susceptible to artemisinin, the key drug used to treat malaria. The tests were developed by researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, working with French and Cambodian colleagues in Cambodia.

  • MERS-CoV Treatment Effective in Monkeys, NIH Study Finds

    September 8, 2013

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists report that a combination of two licensed antiviral drugs reduces virus replication and improves clinical outcome in a recently developed monkey model of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Their study, which appears as a letter in the Sept. 8 edition of Nature Medicine, expands on work published in April showing that a combination of ribavirin and interferon-alpha 2b stops MERS-CoV from replicating in cell culture.

August 2013

  • NIH Observes 20th Anniversary of Women's Interagency HIV Study

    August 29, 2013

    The largest and longest-running study to investigate the impact of HIV on women in the United States marks its 20th anniversary this month. Findings from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) have helped define how best to treat HIV-infected women in the United States and globally.

  • NIH Scientists Describe How Anthrax Toxins Cause Illness, Death

    August 28, 2013

    Researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, both part of the National Institutes of Health, have identified the cells in two distinct areas of the body that are simultaneously targeted for damage by anthrax toxins, eventually causing illness and sometimes death. Their findings, which appeared online today in Nature, are based on testing in mice.

  • Investigational Oral Regimen for Hepatitis C Shows Promise in NIH Trial

    August 27, 2013

    In a study of an all-oral drug regimen, a majority of volunteers with liver damage due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were cured following a six-month course of therapy that combined an experimental drug, sofosbuvir, with the licensed antiviral drug ribavirin. The results showed that the regimen was highly effective in clearing the virus and well tolerated in a group of patients who historically have had unfavorable prognoses.

  • Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    August 22, 2013

    Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can distinguish those at low risk of developing kidney injury from those at high risk, a study suggests. The results also suggest that low levels of this protein, called CXCL9, can rule out rejection as a cause of kidney injury. The study appears online Aug. 22 in the American Journal of Transplantation.

  • NIH-Funded Scientists Describe Genesis, Evolution of H7N9 Influenza Virus

    August 21, 2013

    An international team of influenza researchers in China, the United Kingdom and the United States has used genetic sequencing to trace the source and evolution of the avian H7N9 influenza virus that emerged in humans in China earlier this year.

  • Investigational Malaria Vaccine Found Safe and Protective

    August 8, 2013

    An investigational malaria vaccine has been found to be safe, to generate an immune system response, and to offer protection against malaria infection in healthy adults, according to the results of an early-stage clinical trial published Aug. 8 in the journal Science.

July 2013

  • Therapy for Severe Vasculitis Shows Long-Term Effectiveness

    July 31, 2013

    Administering the drug rituximab once weekly for one month provides the same benefits as 18 months of daily immunosuppressive therapy in people with severe forms of vasculitis, or inflammation of the blood vessels, a study has found.

  • Two New Promising Treatment Regimens for Gonorrhea

    July 15, 2013

    Two new antibiotic regimens using existing drugs-injectable gentamicin in combination with oral azithromycin and oral gemifloxacin in combination with oral azithromycin-successfully treated gonorrhea infections in a clinical trial. The trial was conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

  • NIH Scientists Assess History, Pandemic Potential of H7 Influenza Viruses

    July 9, 2013

    The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus in humans in China has raised questions about its pandemic potential as well as that of related influenza viruses. In a commentary published online today, scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, address these questions by evaluating past outbreaks of H7 subtype influenza viruses among mammals and birds and comparing H7 viruses with other avian influenza viruses and strains.

  • Urine Test Can Diagnose, Predict Kidney Transplant Rejection

    July 3, 2013

    Analysis of three biomarkers in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can diagnose-and even predict-transplant rejection, according to results from a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

June 2013

  • NIH Scientists Discover How HIV Kills Immune Cells

    June 5, 2013

    Untreated HIV infection destroys a person's immune system by killing infection-fighting cells, but precisely when and how HIV wreaks this destruction has been a mystery until now. New research by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, reveals how HIV triggers a signal telling an infected immune cell to die.

  • NIH to Fund Clinical Research Network on Antibacterial Resistance

    June 3, 2013

    Duke University, Durham, N.C., has been awarded $2 million to initiate a new clinical research network focused on antibacterial resistance. Total funding for the leadership group cooperative agreement award could reach up to $62 million through 2019. Funding is provided by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

May 2013

  • Ferrets, Pigs Susceptible to H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus

    May 23, 2013

    Chinese and U.S. scientists have used virus isolated from a person who died from H7N9 avian influenza infection to determine whether the virus could infect and be transmitted between ferrets. Ferrets are often used as a mammalian model in influenza research, and efficient transmission of influenza virus between ferrets can provide clues as to how well the same process might occur in people.

  • Novel Approach for Influenza Vaccination Shows Promise in Early Animal Testing

    May 22, 2013

    A new approach for immunizing against influenza elicited a more potent immune response and broader protection than the currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccines when tested in mice and ferrets. The vaccine concept, which was developed by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), represents an important step forward in the quest to develop a universal influenza vaccine-one that would protect against most or all influenza strains without the need for an annual vaccination.

  • HIV Vaccine Awareness Day May 18, 2013

    May 17, 2013

    The implementation of scientifically proven HIV prevention strategies is helping to reduce the number of new infections-the annual HIV infection rate globally fell by 22 percent from 2001 to 2011-but a great deal more must be done. Significant scale-up of proven HIV prevention strategies coupled with the discovery of new HIV treatment and prevention interventions are needed to achieve an end to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic.

  • Regulatory Officials Informed of HVTN 503 HIV Vaccine Trial Findings

    May 14, 2013

    Officials from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, the NIAID-funded HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN), and study investigators have recently informed the appropriate regulatory authorities in South Africa and the United States of findings from their follow-up analysis of the HVTN 503 "Phambili" HIV vaccine clinical trial in South Africa.

  • Results of the ROTAVAC Rotavirus Vaccine Study in India

    May 14, 2013

    We congratulate the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), Bharat Biotech International, Ltd., and the scientists, government and people of India on the important results from the ROTAVAC rotavirus vaccine study.

  • NIH Scientists Create New Tool for Identifying Powerful HIV Antibodies

    May 9, 2013

    A team of NIH scientists has developed a new tool to identify broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) capable of preventing infection by the majority of HIV strains found around the globe, an advance that could help speed HIV vaccine research.

  • Bacterial Infection in Mosquitoes Renders Them Immune to Malaria Parasites

    May 9, 2013

    Scientists funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, have established an inheritable bacterial infection in malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquitoes that renders them immune to malaria parasites.

  • NIH Statement on Asthma Awareness Month 2013

    May 7, 2013

    For Asthma Awareness Month 2013, the National Institutes of Health stands with the international community to renew our dedication to improving the quality of life for the estimated 300 million people living with asthma worldwide. To most effectively manage asthma, we need to address the disproportionate impact of the disease on minorities and families at or below the poverty line.

April 2013

  • Cell Response to New Coronavirus Unveils Possible Paths to Treatments

    April 30, 2013

    NIH-supported scientists used lab-grown human lung cells to study the cells' response to infection by a novel human coronavirus (called nCoV) and compiled information about which genes are significantly disrupted in early and late stages of infection.

  • NIH Statement on World Malaria Day

    April 25, 2013

    The National Institutes of Health marks World Malaria Day 2013, which has the theme Invest in the Future: Defeat Malaria, by acknowledging the considerable toll the disease continues to exact in many parts of the world.

  • NIH Discontinues Immunizations in HIV Vaccine Study

    April 25, 2013

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, will stop administering injections in its HVTN 505 clinical trial of an investigational HIV vaccine regimen because an independent data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) found during a scheduled interim review that the vaccine regimen did not prevent HIV infection nor reduce viral load (the amount of HIV in the blood) among vaccine recipients who became infected with HIV.

  • NIH Study Offers Clues to Making Vaccine for Infant Respiratory Illness

    April 25, 2013

    An atomic-level snapshot of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) protein bound to a human antibody represents a leap toward developing a vaccine for a common-and sometimes very serious-childhood disease. The findings, by scientists from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, define the vulnerable shape of a critical RSV component called the fusion glycoprotein.

  • Treatment for Novel Coronavirus Shows Promise in Early Lab Tests

    April 18, 2013

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists studying an emerging coronavirus have found that a combination of two licensed antiviral drugs, ribavirin and interferon-alpha 2b, can stop the virus from replicating in laboratory-grown cells. These results suggest that the drug combination could be used to treat patients infected with the new coronavirus, but more research is needed to confirm this preliminary finding.

  • NIH-Supported Researchers Glean Clues from H7N9 Influenza Genetic Sequences

    April 18, 2013

    The novel H7N9 avian influenza virus that has caused illness and death of people in China in recent weeks has characteristics known to cause severe disease in mammals, including people, but it is premature to predict its potential for causing an influenza pandemic, according to researchers in the United States and Japan who evaluated the virus' genetic sequences.

  • Scientists Develop Monkey Model to Study Novel Coronavirus Infection

    April 3, 2013

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers have developed a model of infection in rhesus macaques that will help scientists around the world better understand how an emerging coronavirus, first identified in September 2012, affects people.

  • NIH Scientists, Grantees Map Possible Path to an HIV Vaccine

    April 3, 2013

    In an advance for HIV vaccine research, scientists have for the first time determined how both the virus and a resulting strong antibody response co-evolved in one HIV-infected individual. The findings could help researchers identify which proteins to use in investigational vaccines to induce antibodies capable of preventing infection from an array of HIV strains.

March 2013

  • NIH Statement on World TB Day 2013

    March 24, 2013

    World TB Day, March 24, marks the day in 1882 when German microbiologist Robert Koch discovered the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). Unfortunately, more than 130 years since that discovery, TB remains at epidemic levels in many countries around the world.

  • NIH-Supported Researchers Identify New Class of Malaria Compounds

    March 20, 2013

    A group of researchers from 16 institutions around the world has identified a new class of anti-malarial compounds that target multiple stages of the malaria parasite's life cycle. These compounds could potentially be developed into drugs that treat and prevent malaria infection.

  • Community-Based Efforts Increase HIV Testing, Prompt Behavior Change

    March 5, 2013

    Community-based interventions designed to make voluntary HIV testing and counseling more accessible can increase the number of people who know their HIV status, and can prompt people—especially those at high risk for infection—to adopt safer sexual practices, according to results from an international trial.

  • Daily-Use HIV Prevention Approaches Prove Ineffective Among Women in NIH Study

    March 4, 2013

    Three antiretroviral-based strategies intended to prevent HIV infection among women did not prove effective in a major clinical trial in Africa. For reasons that are unclear, a majority of study participants-particularly young, single women-were unable to use their assigned approaches daily as directed, according to findings presented today by one of the study's co-leaders at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Atlanta.

  • Toddler "Functionally Cured" of HIV Infection, NIH-Supported Investigators Report

    March 3, 2013

    A two-year-old child born with HIV infection and treated with antiretroviral drugs beginning in the first days of life no longer has detectable levels of virus using conventional testing despite not taking HIV medication for 10 months, according to findings presented today at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Atlanta.

February 2013

  • NIH-Funded Researchers Begin Trial of Shigella Vaccine Candidates

    February 20, 2013

    Researchers have launched an early-stage human clinical trial of two related candidate vaccines to prevent infection with Shigella, bacteria that are a significant cause of diarrheal illness, particularly among children.

  • NIH Scientists Discover Promising Target to Block Staphylococcus Infection

    February 11, 2013

    National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists have identified a promising lead for developing a new type of drug to treat infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that frequently resists traditional antibiotics. The researchers discovered a system used by S. aureus to transport toxins that are thought to contribute to severe staph infections.

  • Three NIH-Sponsored Clinical Trials Test Influenza Treatments

    February 5, 2013

    Three clinical trials that seek to find more effective treatments for influenza are enrolling volunteers with influenza at the National Institutes of Health's Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., and at several dozen other domestic and international sites.

January 2013

  • NIH-Developed Candidate Dengue Vaccine Shows Promise in Early-Stage Trial

    January 23, 2013

    A candidate dengue vaccine developed by scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been found to be safe and to stimulate a strong immune response in most vaccine recipients, according to results from an early-stage clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the NIH.

  • NIH Scientists Identify Protective Role for Antibodies in Ebola Vaccine Study

    January 14, 2013

    Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) have found that an experimental vaccine elicits antibodies that can protect nonhuman primates from Ebola virus infection. Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, meaning that infection may lead to shock, bleeding and multi-organ failure.

  • Peanut Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Peanut Allergy

    January 7, 2013

    A new study supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggests that sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) can reduce the allergic response to peanut in adolescents and adults. SLIT is a treatment approach in which, under medical supervision, people place a small amount of allergen under the tongue to decrease their sensitivity to the allergen.