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Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation (DAIT)
55 Results

August 2022

Monoclonal Antibody Reduces Asthma Attacks in Urban Youth

August 10, 2022

A monoclonal antibody, mepolizumab, decreased asthma attacks by 27% in Black and Hispanic children and adolescents who have a form of severe asthma, are prone to asthma attacks and live in low-income urban neighborhoods, a National Institutes of Health clinical trial has found. This population has been underrepresented in previous clinical trials of asthma therapeutics. The findings were published today in the journal The Lancet.

Illustration of Black or Hispanic child using asthma inhaler

June 2022

NIH Launches Trial of Monoclonal Antibody to Treat Asthma in Urban Youth

June 02, 2022

The National Institutes of Health has launched a clinical trial testing whether a monoclonal antibody, dupilumab, can reduce asthma attacks and improve lung function and asthma symptoms in children with poorly controlled allergic asthma who live in low-income urban neighborhoods. The investigators also aim to define the activity levels of asthma-associated gene networks that correspond to specific health outcomes during antibody treatment in these children, most of whom are anticipated to be Black or Hispanic.

Illustration of key physiological differences between a normal lung airway and a lung airway in a person experiencing asthma symptoms.

January 2022

Trial Tests Strategy to Augment Response to COVID-19 Vaccines in Transplant Recipients

January 31, 2022

A study has begun to assess the antibody response to an additional dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in kidney and liver transplant recipients, either alone or with a concurrent reduction in immunosuppressive medication. The clinical trial will enroll people for whom two to four doses of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine did not elicit a detectable antibody response.

SEM image of human cell infected with SARS-CoV-2

Oral Immunotherapy Induces Remission of Peanut Allergy in Some Young Children

January 20, 2022

A clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health has found that giving peanut oral immunotherapy to highly peanut-allergic children ages 1 to 3 years safely desensitized most of them to peanut and induced remission of peanut allergy in one-fifth. The immunotherapy consisted of a daily oral dose of peanut flour for 2.5 years. Remission was defined as being able to eat 5 grams of peanut protein, equivalent to 1.5 tablespoons of peanut butter, without having an allergic reaction six months after completing immunotherapy.

Peanuts in a bowl.

August 2021

NIH Launches Study of Extra COVID-19 Vaccine Dose in People with Autoimmune Disease

August 27, 2021

The National Institutes of Health has begun a clinical trial to assess the antibody response to an extra dose of an authorized or approved COVID-19 vaccine in people with autoimmune disease who did not respond to an original COVID-19 vaccine regimen. The trial also will investigate whether pausing immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune disease improves the antibody response to an extra dose of a COVID-19 vaccine in this population.

Image of cell infected with SARS-CoV-2

NIH Launches Study of Third COVID-19 Vaccine Dose in Kidney Transplant Recipients

August 10, 2021

A pilot study has begun to assess the antibody response to a third dose of an authorized COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in kidney transplant recipients who did not respond to two doses of the Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The Phase 2 trial is sponsored and funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. 

Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a cell (purple) heavily infected with SARS-COV-2 virus particles (yellow)

June 2021

Adjuvant Developed with NIH Funding Enhances Efficacy of India’s COVID-19 Vaccine

June 29, 2021

An adjuvant developed with funding from the National Institutes of Health has contributed to the success of the highly efficacious COVAXIN COVID-19 vaccine, which roughly 25 million people have received to date in India and elsewhere. Adjuvants are substances formulated as part of a vaccine to boost immune responses and enhance a vaccine’s effectiveness. COVAXIN was developed and is manufactured in India, which is currently suffering a devastating health crisis due to COVID-19. 

SEM image of SARS-CoV-2 emerging from cultured cells

May 2021

Gene Therapy Restores Immune Function in Children with Rare Immunodeficiency

May 11, 2021

An investigational gene therapy can safely restore the immune systems of infants and children who have a rare, life-threatening inherited immunodeficiency disorder, according to research supported in part by the National Institutes of Health.

A DNA double helix rests on a print-out illustration of the DNA letters A, T, C and G.

NIH Statement on World Asthma Day 2021

May 05, 2021

On World Asthma Day, the National Institutes of Health reaffirms its commitment to research to improve the lives of people with asthma. More than 25 million people in the United States have asthma, including 5.1 million children, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This chronic lung disease can reduce quality of life, contributes to considerable emotional and financial stress, and is a major contributing factor to missed time from school and work.

April 2021

NIH Establishes New Childhood Asthma Clinical Research Network

April 23, 2021

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded $10 million in first-year funding to establish a clinical research network called Childhood Asthma in Urban Settings (CAUSE). This nationwide network will conduct observational studies and clinical trials to improve understanding of asthma and develop treatment and prevention approaches tailored to children of low-income families living in urban communities. NIAID intends to provide approximately $70 million over seven years to support the CAUSE network.

NIH Trial of Anti-CD14 Antibody to Treat COVID-19 Respiratory Disease Begins

April 13, 2021

A clinical trial testing the safety and efficacy of an investigational monoclonal antibody for treating people who are hospitalized with respiratory disease and low blood oxygen due to infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has begun. The Phase 2 trial, called the COVID-19 anti-CD14 Treatment Trial (CaTT), is sponsored and funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. 

Transmission electron microscope image of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, emerging from human cells.

NIH Begins Study of Allergic Reactions to Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccines

April 07, 2021

A clinical trial is underway to determine whether people who are highly allergic or have a mast cell disorder are at increased risk for an immediate, systemic allergic reaction to the Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines. A systemic allergic reaction to a vaccine occurs in one or more parts of the body beyond the injection site. If such an allergic reaction occurs in study participants, investigators will assess whether the reactions are more frequent in participants who are highly allergic or have a mast cell disorder than in participants with no allergic history.

Transmission electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles

March 2021

NIH Study of Early Predictors, Mechanisms of Food Allergy and Eczema has Begun

March 19, 2021

A study to identify prenatal and early childhood markers of high risk for food allergy and atopic dermatitis, or eczema, as well as biological pathways that lead to these conditions, has begun. The observational study of children from birth to age 3 years will examine the origins of allergic disease by integrating interdisciplinary analyses of data from more than 260 biological and environmental samples and survey responses from each of 2,500 families.

A baby's foot and leg

August 2020

NIH-Supported Scientists Demonstrate How Genetic Variations Cause Eczema

August 14, 2020

New NIH-supported research shows how two common variations in the KIF3A gene cause an impaired skin barrier that allows increased water loss from the skin.

Limb of child with eczema

July 2020

Kidney Transplantation Between People with HIV is Safe, NIH Study Finds

July 23, 2020

NIH Study finds that kidney transplantation between people with HIV is safe, making more kidneys available for those awaiting a transplant.

AIDS Awareness Ribbon

May 2020

NIH Statement on World Asthma Day 2020

May 05, 2020

On World Asthma Day, the NIH raises awareness about this disease, the people affected, and the biomedical research that improves prevention and treatment. 

Study to Determine Incidence of Novel Coronavirus Infection in U.S. Children Begins

May 04, 2020

A NIH study to determine the rate of novel coronavirus infection in children and family members in the United States has begun enrolling participants.

Transmission electron micrograph of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles

January 2020

New Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Trial Compares Stem Cell Transplantation to Best Available Drugs

January 07, 2020

A clinical trial has begun testing an experimental stem cell treatment against the best available biologic therapies for severe forms of relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). The trial, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, will compare the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the two therapeutic approaches. 

Human T cell

September 2019

NIH Awards Contracts to Advance Tuberculosis Immunology Research

September 26, 2019

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded $30 million in first-year funding to establish new centers for immunology research to accelerate progress in tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development. 

Scanning electron micrograph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria which cause tuberculosis

August 2019

NIH-Funded Study Will Test Seasonal Flu Vaccines With Two Experimental Adjuvants

August 08, 2019

An early-stage clinical trial is evaluating two licensed seasonal influenza vaccines, administered with or without novel adjuvants, for their safety and ability to generate an immune response. Adjuvants are compounds added to vaccines to induce stronger and longer-lasting immune responses. The Phase 1 study is enrolling healthy adult volunteers at eight sites across the United States. The trial is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

A person receives a flu shot

June 2019

Immune Cells Play Unexpected Role in Early Tuberculosis Infection

June 05, 2019

A class of immune cells called innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) mediates the body’s initial defense against tuberculosis (TB), according to a report published online today in Nature. Boosting this response may provide a new approach to developing treatments and vaccines against TB, which causes more deaths worldwide than any other single infectious disease. The research was supported in part by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the National Institutes of Health.

Innate lymphoid cells (green) near and within a small area of inflammation in a non-human primate infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause TB

May 2019

Human Antibody Reveals Hidden Vulnerability in Influenza Virus

May 16, 2019

The ever-changing “head” of an influenza virus protein has an unexpected Achilles heel, report scientists funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health. The team discovered and characterized the structure of a naturally occurring human antibody that recognizes and disrupts a portion of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein that the virus uses to enter and infect cells.

swine influenza virus particles attached to and budding off a cell

NIH Statement on World Asthma Day 2019

May 07, 2019

On World Asthma Day, the NIH stands with patients, families, advocates, researchers and health care professionals to raise awareness about this disease. 

April 2019

Scratching the Skin Primes the Gut for Allergic Reactions to Food, Mouse Study Suggests

April 23, 2019

Scratching the skin triggers a series of immune responses culminating in an increased number of activated mast cells—immune cells involved in allergic reactions—in the small intestine, according to research conducted in mice. This newly identified skin-gut communication helps illuminate the relationship between food allergy and atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema), a disease characterized by dry, itchy skin.

February 2019

Scientists Identify Unique Subtype of Eczema Linked to Food Allergy

February 20, 2019

Atopic dermatitis, a common inflammatory skin condition also known as allergic eczema, affects nearly 20 percent of children, 30 percent of whom develop food allergies. Scientists have now found that children with both atopic dermatitis and food allergy have structural and molecular differences in the top layers of healthy-looking skin near the eczema lesions, whereas children with atopic dermatitis alone do not.

A researcher demonstrates the minimally invasive collection of skin samples using small, clear tape strips.