These are original research publications using samples obtained from the NIAID COVID Consortium. Each paper addresses one or more of the scientific questions outlined in the project pages, with the goal of elucidating the immune response to COVID-19.


  1. Asano, T., Boisson, B., Onodi, F., et al. X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency in ~1% of men under 60 years old with life-threatening COVID-19. Sci Immunol. 2021 Aug 19;6(62):eabl4348. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abl4348.
  2. Bastard, P., Gervais, A., Le Voyer, T., et al. Autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs are present in ~ 4% of uninfected individuals over 70 years old and account for ~ 20% of COVID-19 deaths. Sci Immunol. 2021 Aug 19;6(62):eabl4340. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abl4340.
  3. Zhang, Q., Cobat, A., Bastard, P., et al. Association of rare predicted loss-of-function variants of influenza-related type I IFN genes with critical COVID-19 pneumonia. J Clin Invest. 2021 Aug 2;131(15):e152474. doi: 10.1172/JCI152474.
  4. Abers, M., Rosen, L., Delmonte, O., et al. Neutralizing type-I interferon autoantibodies are associated with delayed viral clearance and intensive care unit admission in patients with COVID-19. Immunol Cell Biol. 2021 Jul 26. doi: 10.1111/imcb.12495.
  5. Bastard, P., Orlova, E., Sozaeva, L., et al. Preexisting autoantibodies to type I IFNs underlie critical COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with APS-1. J Exp Med. 2021 Jul 5;218(7):e20210554. doi: 10.1084/jem.20210554.
  6. Liu, C., Martins, M., Lau, W., et al. Time-resolved Systems Immunology Reveals a Late Juncture Linked to Fatal COVID-19. Cell. 2021 Apr 1;184(7):1836-1857.e22. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.018.
  7. Novelli, G., Liu, J., Biancolella, M., et al. Inhibition of HECT E3 ligases as potential therapy for COVID-19. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Mar 24;12(4):310. doi: 10.1038/s41419-021-03513-1.
  8. Abers, M., Delmonte, O., Ricotta, E., et al. An immune-based biomarker signature is associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients. JCI Insight. 2021 Jan 11;6(1):e144455. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.144455.
  9. Bastard, P., Rosen, L., Zhang, Q., et al. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19. Science. 2020 Oct 23;370(6515):eabd4585. doi: 10.1126/science.abd4585.
  10. Zhang, Q., Bastard, P., Liu, Z., et al. Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19. Science. 2020 Oct 23;370(6515):eabd4570. doi: 10.1126/science.abd4570.


  1. Snyder, T., Gittelman, R., Klinger, M., et al. Magnitude and Dynamics of the T-Cell Response to SARS-CoV-2 Infection at Both Individual and Population Levels. medRxiv. 2020 Sep 17;2020.07.31.20165647. doi: 10.1101/2020.07.31.20165647.
  2. Wang L, Candia J, Ma L, et al. Serological Responses to Human Virome Define Clinical Outcomes of Italian Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2. medRxiv. 2020 Sep 7:2020.09.04.20187088. doi: 10.1101/2020.09.04.20187088.
  3. Nolan, S., Vignali, M., Klinger, M., et al. A large-scale database of T-cell receptor beta (TCRβ) sequences and binding associations from natural and synthetic exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Res Sq. 2020 Aug doi: 10.21203/

Reviews, Editorials, & Commentaries on SARS-CoV-2

  1. Stack, M., Sacco, K., Castagnoli, R., et al. BTK inhibitors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A systematic review. Clin Immunol. 2021 Sep;230:108816. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2021.108816. 
  2. Vinh, D., Abel, L., Bastard, P., et al. Harnessing Type I IFN Immunity Against SARS-CoV-2 with Early Administration of IFN-β. J Clin Immunol. 2021 Jun 8:1-18. doi: 10.1007/s10875-021-01068-6.
  3. Sancho-Shimizu V, Brodin P, Cobat A, et al. SARS-CoV-2-related MIS-C: A key to the viral and genetic causes of Kawasaki disease? J Exp Med. 2021 Jun 7;218(6):e20210446. doi: 10.1084/jem.20210446.
  4. Zhang, Q., Bastard, P., Bolze, A., et al. Life-Threatening COVID-19: Defective Interferons Unleash Excessive Inflammation. Med (N Y). 2020 Dec 18;1(1):14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.medj.2020.12.001.
  5. Zhang, S., Zhang, Q., Casanova, J., et al. Severe COVID-19 in the young and healthy: monogenic inborn errors of immunity? Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 Aug;20(8):455-456. doi: 10.1038/s41577-020-0373-7.
  6. Casanova, J., and Su, H. A Global Effort to Define the Human Genetics of Protective Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Cell. 2020 Jun 11;181(6):1194-1199. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.016.
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