PathogenAR Module – Hepatitis B- The Hepatitis B Life Cycle

Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV).

For most people, Hepatitis B resolves on its own, but for others, it develops into a chronic infection.  Hepatitis B can be prevented through vaccination, but no cure is available for those chronically infected.  Chronic infection often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

This module examines the structure and life cycle of HBV. Targeting specific components of the viral life cycle is key to development of a cure. Below is a list of resources to support this module.

Models in the 3D Print Exchange



Seitz, S., Urban, S., Antoni, C., & Böttcher, B. (2007). Cryo-electron microscopy of hepatitis B virions reveals variability in envelope capsid interactions. The EMBO Journal, 26(18), 4160–4167.

Bottcher B, Nassal M. Structure of Mutant Hepatitis B Core Protein Capsids with Premature Secretion Phenotype. Journal of Molecular Biology [Internet]. 2018 Dec;430(24):4941–54. 

Levrero M, Pollicino T, Petersen J, Belloni L, Raimondo G, Dandri M. Control of cccDNA function in hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of Hepatology [Internet]. 2009 Sep;51(3):581–92. 

Hu J, Protzer U, Siddiqui A. Revisiting Hepatitis B Virus: Challenges of Curative Therapies. Glaunsinger BA, editor. J Virol [Internet]. 2019 Oct 15;93(20). 


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