Major Areas of Research
- Preclinical evaluation of candidate vaccines in nonhuman primates (NHP)
- Isolation of cells from NHP tissues and cyropreservation
- Development, optimization, and standardization of assays using NHP cells
Immunological evaluations in NHP models are essential for the advancement of vaccine research. In particular, vaccination and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge of macaque species is the best animal model for evaluating candidate HIV vaccines in pre-clinical studies. As a result, the Nonhuman Primate Immunogenicity Core (NIC) was established to support the research efforts of investigators at the VRC.
The NIC manages basic, translational, and preclinical NHP studies. Basic research interests include lymphocyte trafficking, the generation and maintenance of memory responses in systemic and mucosal sites, and pathogenesis following SIV infection. Translational research studies are performed to optimize a variety of different platforms and vectors by studying the effects of different adjuvants, schedules, and delivery methods on immunogenicity. Finally, the data from preclinical testing of vaccines in NHP models is used to support moving clinical products forward to human testing and can be critical to regulatory filings.
All studies that are conducted through the NIC are processed in a standardized manner using the same standard operating procedures (SOPs) for tissue preparation and T cell assays. For example, the NIC uses a qualified 19-color ICS panel and assay for the measurement of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF, IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-21, and CD40L from CD4 and CD8 T cells; memory T cell subsets and Tfh can also be identified using this panel. In addition, the NIC has qualified the Luminex assay for the measurement of 23 cytokines and chemokines from plasma or cell culture supernatant. To perform these operations, the NIC uses state-of-the-art technologies available at the VRC including 30-color FACS analyzers, 30-color sorters (one in BSL-3 containment), reagent manufacturing capabilities, and the Luminex system.
Other responsibilities of the NIC include the following: consulting on the design and implementation of NHP studies, maintaining a bank of NHP tissue samples for use by VRC investigators, designing new panels such as probe-binding B cell panels, and collating, analyzing, and coordinating data.
For more information on research conducted by Kathryn Foulds, Ph.D. visit the ImmunoTechnology Section.
Dr. Foulds received her M.S. in biotechnology in 1998 from Johns Hopkins University and her Ph.D. in cell and molecular biology in 2003 from the University of Pennsylvania. Her academic interests focused on immunology as well as molecular and microbiology. As a postdoctoral fellow in Dr. Robert Seder’s laboratory at the VRC, Dr. Foulds investigated the role of IL-10 and IFNγ in regulating the generation of memory T cells following vaccination or infection of mice. Dr. Foulds became the assistant director of flow cytometry for the Immune Tolerance Network in 2008, where she managed three remote flow cytometry cores that acquired data for 15 clinical trials. She analyzed the flow cytometry data for quality control as well as for interpreting study results. Dr. Foulds was also responsible for designing flow cytometry panels and coordinating research and development projects performed at the flow cores. Dr. Foulds accepted the position of co-chief, NIC, in 2008.
Potter EL, Gideon HP, Tkachev V, Fabozzi G, Chassiakos A, Petrovas C, Darrah PA, Lin PL, Foulds KE, Kean LS, Flynn JL, Roederer M. Measurement of leukocyte trafficking kinetics in macaques by serial intravascular staining. Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jan 13;13(576):eabb4582.
Corbett KS, Flynn B, Foulds KE, Francica JR, Boyoglu-Barnum S, Werner AP, Flach B, O'Connell S, Bock KW, Minai M, Nagata BM, Andersen H, Martinez DR, Noe AT, Douek N, Donaldson MM, Nji NN, Alvarado GS, Edwards DK, Flebbe DR, Lamb E, Doria-Rose NA, Lin BC, Louder MK, O'Dell S, Schmidt SD, Phung E, Chang LA, Yap C, Todd JM, Pessaint L, Van Ry A, Browne S, Greenhouse J, Putman-Taylor T, Strasbaugh A, Campbell TA, Cook A, Dodson A, Steingrebe K, Shi W, Zhang Y, Abiona OM, Wang L, Pegu A, Yang ES, Leung K, Zhou T, Teng IT, Widge A, Gordon I, Novik L, Gillespie RA, Loomis RJ, Moliva JI, Stewart-Jones G, Himansu S, Kong WP, Nason MC, Morabito KM, Ruckwardt TJ, Ledgerwood JE, Gaudinski MR, Kwong PD, Mascola JR, Carfi A, Lewis MG, Baric RS, McDermott A, Moore IN, Sullivan NJ, Roederer M, Seder RA, Graham BS. Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates. N Engl J Med. 2020 Oct 15;383(16):1544-1555.
Van Rompay KKA, Keesler RI, Ardeshir A, Watanabe J, Usachenko J, Singapuri A, Cruzen C, Bliss-Moreau E, Murphy AM, Yee JL, Webster H, Dennis M, Singh T, Heimsath H, Lemos D, Stuart J, Morabito KM, Foreman BM, Burgomaster KE, Noe AT, Dowd KA, Ball E, Woolard K, Presicce P, Kallapur SG, Permar SR, Foulds KE, Coffey LL, Pierson TC, Graham BS. DNA vaccination before conception protects Zika virus-exposed pregnant macaques against prolonged viremia and improves fetal outcomes. Sci Transl Med. 2019 Dec 18;11(523):eaay2736.
Iwamoto N, Mason RD, Song K, Gorman J, Welles HC, Arthos J, Cicala C, Min S, King HAD, Belli AJ, Reimann KA, Foulds KE, Kwong PD, Lifson JD, Keele BF, Roederer M. Blocking α4β7 integrin binding to SIV does not improve virologic control. Science. 2019 Sep 6;365(6457):1033-1036.
Kong R, Duan H, Sheng Z, Xu K, Acharya P, Chen X, Cheng C, Dingens AS, Gorman J, Sastry M, Shen CH, Zhang B, Zhou T, Chuang GY, Chao CW, Gu Y, Jafari AJ, Louder MK, O'Dell S, Rowshan AP, Viox EG, Wang Y, Choi CW, Corcoran MM, Corrigan AR, Dandey VP, Eng ET, Geng H, Foulds KE, Guo Y, Kwon YD, Lin B, Liu K, Mason RD, Nason MC, Ohr TY, Ou L, Rawi R, Sarfo EK, Schön A, Todd JP, Wang S, Wei H, Wu W; NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Mullikin JC, Bailer RT, Doria-Rose NA, Karlsson Hedestam GB, Scorpio DG, Overbaugh J, Bloom JD, Carragher B, Potter CS, Shapiro L, Kwong PD, Mascola JR. Antibody Lineages with Vaccine-Induced Antigen-Binding Hotspots Develop Broad HIV Neutralization. Cell. 2019 Jul 25;178(3):567-584.e19.
Donaldson MM, Kao SF, Foulds KE. OMIP-052: An 18-Color Panel for Measuring Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tfh Responses in Rhesus Macaques. Cytometry A. 2019 Mar;95(3):261-263.