Steven J. Reynolds, M.D., M.P.H., F.R.C.P. (C)

International HIV/STD Section

NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD

Steven James Reynolds, M.D., M.P.H. (He/Him/His)

Senior Clinician

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Portrait Steven James Reynolds, MD, MPH
  • Treatment monitoring strategies to optimize HIV care in resource limited settings
  • Herpes virus co-infections among HIV positive individuals and their role in immune activation
  • Epidemiology of transmitted and acquired HIV drug resistance in Uganda and South Africa
  • Implementation of Combination HIV Prevention strategies to reduce HIV incidence in Uganda

Program Description

Established in 2003, the International Center for Excellence in Research (ICER) in Uganda in collaboration with Ugandan colleagues has contributed greatly to our understanding of the Epidemiology of HIV in Uganda. Several policy-changing studies have been conducted by the ICER program including the importance of Viral Load monitoring for individuals on antiretroviral therapy and the role of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention. The program was also among the first to provide important empiric evidence of the role of combination prevention to reduce HIV incidence in Africa.  The ICER is also part of the REACH network for HIV Cure investigating the HIV reservoir and factors affecting the size among Ugandan clients.   



M.P.H., 2002, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health

M.D.C.M., 1994, McGill University

B.Sc., University of Toronto

Languages Spoken


Dr. Reynolds obtained his M.D. from McGill University in 1994 and went on to receive specialty certification in Internal Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. He completed his M.P.H. in 2002 at Johns Hopkins University while working on an HIV prevention collaboration in Pune, India. He is a senior clinician at NIAID and an associate professor of medicine and epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University. He has worked on collaborative research with colleagues in Uganda since 2003 where he oversees clinical and laboratory research activities for the NIAID International Centers for Excellence in Research (ICER) Program. In addition to providing scientific direction to the ICER program in Uganda, he continues to provide HIV care and treatment at both Rakai Health Sciences Program and at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala.

Selected Publications

Ssempijja V, Nakigozi G, Ssekubugu R, Kagaayi J, Kigozi G, Nalugoda F, Nantume B, Batte J, Kigozi G, Yeh PT, Nakawooya H, Serwadda D, Quinn TC, Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Grabowski KM, Chang LW, Van't Hoog A, Cobelens F, Reynolds SJ. High Rates of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Eligibility and Associated HIV Incidence in a Population With a Generalized HIV Epidemic in Rakai, Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2022 Jul 1;90(3):291-299. *

Ssempijja V, Nason M, Nakigozi G, Ndyanabo A, Gray R, Wawer M, Chang LW, Gabriel E, Quinn TC, Serwadda D, Reynolds SJ. Adaptive Viral Load Monitoring Frequency to Facilitate Differentiated Care: A Modeling Study From Rakai, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 14;71(4):1017-1021. 

Kagaayi J, Chang LW, Ssempijja V, Grabowski MK, Ssekubugu R, Nakigozi G, Kigozi G, Serwadda DM, Gray RH, Nalugoda F, Sewankambo NK, Nelson L, Mills LA, Kabatesi D, Alamo S, Kennedy CE, Tobian AAR, Santelli JS, Ekström AM, Nordenstedt H, Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Reynolds SJ. Impact of combination HIV interventions on HIV incidence in hyperendemic fishing communities in Uganda: a prospective cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2019 Oct;6(10):e680-e687. 

Grabowski MK, Serwadda DM, Gray RH, Nakigozi G, Kigozi G, Kagaayi J, Ssekubugu R, Nalugoda F, Lessler J, Lutalo T, Galiwango RM, Makumbi F, Kong X, Kabatesi D, Alamo ST, Wiersma S, Sewankambo NK, Tobian AAR, Laeyendecker O, Quinn TC, Reynolds SJ, Wawer MJ, Chang LW; Rakai Health Sciences Program. HIV Prevention Efforts and Incidence of HIV in Uganda. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 30;377(22):2154-2166. 

Ssempijja V, Nakigozi G, Chang L, Gray R, Wawer M, Ndyanabo A, Kasule J, Serwadda D, Castelnuovo B, Hoog AV, Reynolds SJ. Rates of switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy and impact of delayed switching on immunologic, virologic, and mortality outcomes among HIV-infected adults with virologic failure in Rakai, Uganda. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 22;17(1):582.

Reynolds SJ, Makumbi F, Newell K, Kiwanuka N, Ssebbowa P, Mondo G, Boaz I, Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Serwadda D, Quinn TC. Effect of daily aciclovir on HIV disease progression in individuals in Rakai, Uganda, co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Jun;12(6):441-8.

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