Germain Research Group

The Lymphocyte Biology Section (LBS) has made numerous contributions to the understanding of the cell biology of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and especially class II molecules. It also has examined recognition of these ligands by T cells with a focus on the signaling mechanisms involved in ligand discrimination. Since the early 2000’s, the LBS has conducted analysis of immune cell behavior in vivo using methods of intravital 2-photon imaging that it helped pioneer, providing real-time, high-resolution visualization of immune-cell dynamics in situ. More recently, the LBS has developed novel, highly multiplex section and volume imaging methods (Histo-cytometry, IBEX, and Ce3D) that allow an unprecedented analysis of cell phenotype, signaling, function, and location in complex tissue settings. These various imaging technologies are being used with more conventional molecular and cellular immunological methods to 1) describe the dynamics of innate and adaptive immune cell movement in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissue; 2) localize the sites and duration of the cell-cell interactions involved in the development of adaptive immune responses; 3) analyze how differences in these aspects of cell migration and interaction affect differentiation events and functional immunity; and 4) investigate the dynamic behavior and effector activities of innate and adaptive immune cells in non-lymphoid sites including cancers.

Ronald Germain, M.D., Ph.D.

Chief, Laboratory of Immune System Biology
Chief, Lymphocyte Biology Section
Director, Center for Advanced Tissue Imaging (CAT-I)

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M.D., Ph.D., 1976, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University

Sc.B., Sc.M., 1970, Brown University

Dr. Germain received his Sc.B. and Sc.M. from Brown University in 1970 and his M.D. and Ph.D. from Harvard Medical School and Harvard University in 1976. From 1976 to 1982, he served as an instructor, assistant professor, and associate professor of pathology at Harvard Medical School. From 1982 to 1987, he worked as a senior investigator in the Laboratory of Immunology (LI).

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Ronald Germain

Leanne J. Arakkal, B.Sc. (She/Her/Hers)

IRTA Postbaccalaureate Fellow

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B.Sc., Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Languages Spoken: Malayalam

My project utilizes multiplex imaging, single cell RNA sequencing, and spatial temporal analysis to understand the early innate response to negative sense RNA viruses.

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Waipan Chan, Ph.D. (He/Him/His)


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Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

B.S, Binghamton University, SUNY

Languages Spoken: Cantonese, Mandarin

Dr. Waipan Chan’s Ph.D. thesis research aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic CARD11 mutant signaling to NFκB in human Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. His postdoctoral research in the LBS utilized fluorescent live cell multiplex imaging to reveal how TCR ligand potency influences the effects of PD-1 engagement on diverse intracellular signaling pathways.

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Spencer Michael Grant, B.A. (He/Him/His)

IRTA Postbaccalaureate Fellow

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B.A., Macalester College

I am particularly interested in developing computational methods that may be used to enhance our understanding of immunity. In particular, I am working on developing RAPID – a multifaceted image analysis software package with novel segmentation and phenotyping capabilities – as well as DeePlexing – a machine learning algorithm designed to expand tissue imaging multiplexity.

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Jyh Liang Hor, Ph.D.

Postdoctoral Visiting Fellow

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Ph.D., Immunology, University of Melbourne

Languages Spoken: Chinese, Malay

Exploring complex interplay of immune cell interactions through combined intravital and highly multiplexed 3D tissue microscopy, currently focusing on the regulatory mechanisms of lymphocyte differentiation and function within tissue microenvironment.

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Hiroshi Ichise, Ph.D. (He/Him/His)

Postdoctoral Visiting Fellow

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Ph.D., Immunology, Kyoto University

Languages Spoken: Japanese

Hiroshi received his Master's degree and completed his Ph.D. at Kyoto University, where he studied the missing-self recognition of NK cells. He continued his post-doctoral training at Kyoto University, during which period he studied the immune response to metastatic cancer cells using intravital two-photon imaging. His current research focuses on developing multiplex 3D imaging and understanding...

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Qiaoshi Lian, Ph.D. (He/Him/His)

Visiting Postdoctoral Fellow

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Ph.D., Cell Biology, 2018, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Languages Spoken: Mandarin

Qiao joined Ron’s group in early 2019 for his postdoctoral training. His major interest is to use advanced 2D/3D imaging techniques to study tumor immunology. Now he is working on understanding how intra-tumoral T cells respond to local antigens and checkpoint blockades to reach successful and also highly-efficient tumor therapy.

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Vivien Ileana Maltez, Ph.D. (She/Her/Hers)


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Ph.D., Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
B.A., Molecular Biology, Scripps College

Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive and therapeutically difficult cancer to treat. Mouse models of pancreatic cancer are therefore paramount to our mechanistic understanding of tumor microenvironment dynamics and immunomodulatory interventions. The overall goal of her research is to leverage cutting edge microscopy techniques to mechanistically understand the fine grain cellular interactions that...

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Armando J. Arroyo Mejías, B.Sc. (He/Him/His)

Intramural Research Opportunities Research (INRO) Postbaccalaureate Fellow

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B.Sc., Clinical Microbiology, University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo

Languages Spoken: Spanish

Armando works with the development of 3D-IBEX, a leading-edge 3D microscopic imaging technique to study the immune system biology. 3D-IBEX allows multiplex image acquisition of whole organs while attaining high cell resolution information.

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Kartika Padhan, Ph.D.


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Ph.D., Virology, 2008, International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi, India

M.Sc., Life Sciences, 2003, Sambalpur University, Odisha, India

B.Sc., Botany (Honors), Chemistry, Zoology, 1999, Sambalpur University, Odisha, India

Languages Spoken: Hindi, Odia

After finishing Ph.D. in virology, Dr. Padhan pursued postdoctoral research at the Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, NIAID, NIH to study ligand discrimination by the T cell receptor in mouse model. Since joining CATI/LBS in 2019, his current research focus is to understand the role of T follicular helper cells (TFH) in B cell mediated immune response. He is also developing multiplex...

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Andrea J. Radtke, Ph.D.

Staff Scientist/Associate Scientist

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Ph.D., School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University

Dr. Radtke specializes in advanced microscopy and led development of IBEX, an iterative immunolabeling and chemical bleaching method that enables highly multiplexed imaging in diverse tissues. Andrea is an Associate Member of the Human Biomolecular Atlas Program and Trans-NIH Lymphatic Coordinating Committee. Dr. Radtke is passionate about team science, open science, and mentoring.

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Edward C. Schrom II, Ph.D. (He/Him/His)

IRTA Postdoctoral Fellow

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Ph.D., Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University
M.S., Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University
B.S., Biology, University of Virginia
B.A., Mathematics, University of Virginia

I study how immunity at the tissue and organism scales emerges from the local interactions of individual autonomous cells. This includes building detailed quantitative models to pinpoint the key processes in specific immune contexts, as well as developing generalized computational tools to maximize inference from large data sets.

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Wanjing Shang, Ph.D.

Postdoctoral Visiting Fellow

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Ph.D., ShanghaiTech University & University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Languages Spoken: Chinese

Wanjing previously studied T cell signaling transduction upon anti-TCR stimulation. Her current work focuses on studying the function of candidate genes in immune cells for cancer immunotherapy.

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Emily Speranza, Ph.D. (She/Her/Hers)

Independent Research Scholar

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Ph.D., Bioinformatics, Boston University
B.A., Mathematics and Biology, Carroll College

I work as an Independent Research Scholar in the Lymphocyte Biology Section. My work is focused on the study of early immune responses to acute viral infections at barrier tissue sties including the liver, lymph node, and lung. I utilize a multi-omics approach to understand how individual cells are responding and preventing dissemination of the pathogens.

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Nishant Thakur, Ph.D., M.Sc. (He/Him/His)

Visiting Fellow

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Ph.D., Genomics and Bioinformatics, Aix Marseille University, France

M.Sc., Bioinformatics, Jamia Millia Islamia University, India

Languages Spoken: Hindi

I am interested in innovating and developing new computational algorithms for understanding complex biological data. During my postdoc, I created multiple machine learning algorithms to generate and analyze multiplex image data to unleash different aspects of the immune system.

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Tibor Z. Veres, M.D., Ph.D. (He/Him/His)


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Ph.D., 2008, Hannover Medical School

M.D., 2007, University of Freiburg

M.D., 2003, Semmelweis University

Languages Spoken: Hungarian, German, Finnish

Tibor earned his Ph.D. studying neuro-immune interactions of the airway mucosa in allergic disease via 3D confocal microscopy in Hannover, Germany. He continued his post-doctoral training in Turku, Finland, during which period he also visited the NIAID for a 1-year fellowship. As a post-doc and later as a Junior PI in Turku, he studied the immunological basis of the allergic airway response using...

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Luke F. Vistain, Ph.D. (He/Him/His)

IRTA Postdoctoral Fellow

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Ph.D., Biology, Northwestern University
B.A., Biochemistry, New York University

Dr. Vistain develops technology to measure how cells process information from their environment. Currently, these tools are being applied to better understand cell signaling in T and CAR T cells.

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Weiming Yu, Ph.D.

Staff Scientist

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Ph.D., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich

He is interested in optical microscopy and applying ultrafast microscopic techniques for tissue imaging. His research projects include spectral and lifetime based super-multiplex imaging of tissues, metabolic imaging and imaging studies of tumor microenvironment changes under immunotherapies. He is a staff member of Center for Advanced Tissue Imaging (CAT-I).

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Chen Zhao, M.D.

Assistant Clinical Investigator (NCI)

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M.D., Peking Union Medical College, Tsinghua University

Languages Spoken: Mandarin

Dr. Chen Zhao is a thoracic oncologist, immunologist, and physician-scientist focusing on tumor immunology and immunotherapy in lung cancer and thymic malignancies. He specializes in developing novel immunotherapeutics and using advanced tissue imaging techniques to understand the three-way interactions among tumor cells, the immune system, and the microbiota in the tumor microenvironment over the...

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Former Research Group Members

Pierres, Michel Postdoc (Harvard) 1976-1978 deceased

Zubler, Rudolf Postdoc (Harvard) 1978-1980 retired

Dietz, Michael Postdoc (Harvard) 1977-1980 physician

Letvin, Norman Postdoc (Harvard) 1979-1981 deceased

Nepom, Gerald Postdoc (Harvard) 1980-1981 Member, Benaroya Research Institute, Director, ITN

Rock, Kenneth Postdoc (Harvard) 1980-1981 Chair, Pathology UMass Medical School Internationally recognized investigator of adjuvant signals

Norcross, Michael Postdoc 1982-1985 Investigator, FDA (retired)

Lechler, (Sir) Robert Postdoc 1984-1986 Past Dean and Senior Vice-President, Kings College, London, UK One of my first fellows at NIH. Well known in human immunology and a leader in UK academic medicine, including head of the equivalent of the National Academy of Medicine in the US; knighted

Miller, James Postdoc 1983-1987 Professor, Univ. of Rochester

Sant, Andrea Postdoc 1985-1987 Professor, Univ. of Rochester Highly successful investigator, leader at Univ. Rochester; strong AAI involvement

Braunstein, Ned Postdoc 1985-1987 Senior VP, Regeneron

Ronchese, Franca Postdoc 1984-1988 Immunology Cell Biology Program Leader, Malaghan Inst. New Zealand Helps direct major New Zealand research institute; well known for her basic immunology research, especially on dendritic cells

Saito, Takashi Postdoc 1985-1988 Team leader, Laboratory for Cell Signaling, RIKEN, Japan World recognized investigator in the field of TCR signaling and molecular imaging

Boehnke, Wolf-Henning Postdoc 1990-1993 Professor, Univ. of Geneva

Layet, Corrine Postdoc 1989-1991 deceased

Otten, Gib Postdoc 1989-1991 retired

Sadegh-Nasseri, Scheherazade Postdoc/Staff Scientist 1989-1992 Professor, Johns Hopkins Univ.

Racioppi, Luigi Postdoc 1989-1992 Assoc. Professor, Medicine, Duke Univ.

Koenig, Rolf Postdoc 1990-1995 Professor, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch

Romagnoli, Paola Postdoc 1991-1995 deceased

Van Meerwijk, Joost Postdoc 1991-1995 Professor, Toulouse Univ. France

Castellino, Flora Postdoc 1992-1996 Scientist, BARDA

Madrenas, Joaquin Postdoc 1993-1996 Professor and Dean, UCLA

Reis e Sousa, Caetano Postdoc 1993-1998 Senior Group Leader, Crick Institute, UK Fellow of the Royal Society, recipient of numerous European and international awards for his outstanding contributions to innate immune sensing and dendritic cell biology

Lucas, Bruno Postdoc 1995-2000 Team Leader Institut Cochin and scientific deputy director of the Institute for biological Sciences of the CNRS, France

Zhong, Guangming Postdoc 1995-1998 Professor, UT San Antonio Leading investigator in the field of chlamydia research

Fleury, Sylvain Postdoc 1993-1996 Chief Scientific Officer at Mymetics Corporation

Porgador, Angel Postdoc 1995-1998 Professor and Dean, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel Numerous leadership roles in Israeli immunology, including as head of the equivalent of the AAI

Eichelberg, Katrin Postdoc 1998-2001 Program Officer, Immunology and Vaccines, NIAID, NIH

Stefanova, Irena Staff Scientist 1997-2004 unknown

Itoh, Yasushi Postdoc 1996-2000 Professor, Shiga University, Japan

Yasutomo, Koji Visiting Scientist 1997-2000 Professor, Tokushima University, Japan

Delon , Jerome Postdoc 1999-2002 Investigator, Institut Cochin, France

Scheinecker, Clemens Postdoc 2001-2004 Professor, Medical University of Vienna, Austria

Dorfman, Jeffrey Postdoc 1998-2003 Assoc. Professor, Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Mackay, Matthew Postdoc 2001-2003 teacher

Stoll, Sabine Postdoc 1999-2003 unknown

Huang, Alex Postdoc 2003-2006 Professor, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine

Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire Postdoc 2000-2005 Investigator, NCI, NIH International leader in computational immunology and systems biology

Meier-Schellersheim, Martin Postdoc/Staff scientist 2001-2007 Senior investigator, Lab. of Immune System Biology, NIAID, NIH Developer of the most widely accepted algorithm (SBML3 multi) for spatially resolved modeling of cellular biochemistry; initial report of this technology came while a fellow with Germain

Qi, Hai Postdoc 2003-2009 Professor and Dean, Tsinghua University, China Internationally recognized investigator, major contributor to understanding germinal center regulation, international HHMI investigator, Dean, Tsinghua University

Chieppa, Marcello Postdoc 2003-2008 Principal Investigator, IRCCS “de Bellis” Castellana Grotte (BA), Italy

Egen, Jackson Postdoc/Staff scientist 2004-2010 Director, Oncology Research, Amgen

Bajenoff, Marc Postdoc 2004-2006 Laboratory Head, Immunobiology of Stromal Cells, CIML, France Internationally recognized for his work on stromal cells in lymphoid tissues and for developing methods for tracking clonal cell development in the immune system

Ishii, Masaru Postdoc 2006-2008 Professor, Osaka University, Dept. Immunology and IFREC, Japan Widely known for his intravital imaging studies, technology development, and especially analysis of osteoclastogenesis

Hammad, Hamid Visiting scientist 2007 Professor, Ghent University and Group Leader, VIB, Belgium

Mueller, Scott Postdoc 2008 Professorial Fellow Microbiology and Immunology, Univ. Melbourne Well recognized expert on tissue resident T cells and their dynamics

Vrisekoop, Ninke Postdoc 2008-2013 Assistant professor, Utrecht Univ., Netherlands

Mandl, Judith Postdoc 2008-2014 Asst. professor, Department of Physiology McGill University, Canada

Kastenmuller, Wolfgang Postdoc 2008-2012 Director, Max Planck Systems Immunology program, Wurzburg, Germany

Gerner, Michael Postdoc 2009-2015 Asst. professor, Dept. Immunology, Univ. of Washington Recognized for his contributions to multiplex imaging technology and its application to spatial analysis of lymphoid tissues

Laemmermann, Tim Postdoc 2010-2014 Group leader, Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Freiburg, Germany Widely known for his pioneering studies of myeloid cell motility, including neutrophil dynamics and the mechanistic dissection of 3D guidance in tissues

Subramanian, Naeha Postdoc 2009-2014 Assistant Member, Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle

Monteiro, Joao Postdoc 2009-2013 Editor in Chief, Nature Medicine

Gottschalk, Rachel Postdoc 2012-2017 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Immunology, Univ. Pittsburgh

Brandes, Marlene Postdoc 2008-2012 cardiologist

Van Panhuys, Nicholas Postdoc 2009-2015 Investigator, Sidra Medicine, Qatar

Honda, Tetsuya Postdoc 2012-2014 Professor, Department of Dermatology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Japan

Clatworthy, Menna Fellow 2010-2011 Professor, Cambridge University Plays a major role in the Human Cell Atlas community; leads the UK side of the NIH Ox-Cam Ph.D. program; world leader in the immunology of the kidney Aronin, Caren Postdoc Patent attorney

Radtke, Andrea Postdoc 2013-2018 Staff Scientist, NIAID, NIH

Liu, Zhidou Postdoc 2010-2016 Principal Investigator, Shanghai Institute of Immunology, China

Veres, Tibor Postdoc 2013 Contractor, NIAID, NIH

Wong, Harikesh Postdoc 2015-present Asst. professor, Ragon Institute and MIT (as of Dec. 2021)

Huang, Yuefeng Postdoc 2016-2018 Asst. professor, Micro and Immunology, Columbia University

Mao, Kairui Postdoc 2014-2019 Asst. Professor, Xiamen University, China

Gola, Anita Ph.D. student/ Postdoc 2015-2020 Postdoc with Elaine Fuchs, Rockefeller

Uderhardt, Stefan Postdoc 2014-2019 Research group leader, Friedrich-Alexander-University, Germany

Baptista, Antonio Postdoc 2014-2019 Fellow, VIB, Ghent, Belgium

Milanez-Almeida, Pedro Postdoc 2014-2019 Computationalist, Astra-Zeneca

Chan, Waipan Postdoc/contractor 2014-2018; 2018-present Contractor, NIAID, NIH

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