Sinu P. John, Ph.D.

Signaling Systems Section

Established in 2011

NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD

Sinu P. John, Ph.D. (He/Him/His)

Staff Scientist

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Headshot of Sinu P. John, Ph.D.
  • Genes and epigenetic states modulating macrophage signaling and function
  • Identification and characterization of trained immunity stimuli
  • Applications of trained immunity in infectious and immune disease

Program Description

Our research focuses primarily on identification of cell intrinsic factors (protein coding and non-coding genes) associated with regulation of macrophage signaling. We use high throughput genome-wide techniques such as RNAi screening, CRISPR screening, RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, etc. to identify and characterize the genes and gene-regulatory mechanisms that modulate the immune response in macrophage cells. In addition, we study the role of various external factors (environmental pollutants, drugs, diet, etc.) that modulate the immune response in macrophages with an emphasis to develop therapeutic candidates for the treatment of infectious and immune diseases. We use both bacterial and several emerging viral models such as HIV, Influenza, SARS-CoV-2, etc. to study the impact of immune regulation by various intrinsic and external factors.



Ph.D., 2006, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA

M.Sc., 1999, University of Hyderabad, India

Languages Spoken


Dr. John received a master’s degree in biochemistry from the University of Hyderabad, India and his Ph.D. in biochemistry and molecular genetics from the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He conducted postdoctoral research in the functional genomics of virus-host interactions at Harvard Medical School and the Ragon Institute of Mass General, MIT, and Harvard. Dr. John joined the Signaling Systems Section of the Laboratory of Immune System Biology in 2013 as a staff scientist.

Selected Publications

John SP, Singh A, Sun J, Pierre MJ, Alsalih L, Lipsey C, Traore Z, Balcom-Luker S, Bradfield CJ, Song J, Markowitz TE, Smelkinson M, Ferrer M, Fraser IDC. Small-molecule screening identifies Syk kinase inhibition and rutaecarpine as modulators of macrophage training and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cell Rep. 2022 Oct 4;41(1):111441.

John SP, Sun J, Carlson RJ, Cao B, Bradfield CJ, Song J, Smelkinson M, Fraser IDC. IFIT1 Exerts Opposing Regulatory Effects on the Inflammatory and Interferon Gene Programs in LPS-Activated Human Macrophages. Cell Rep. 2018 Oct 2;25(1):95-106.e6.

John SP, Chin CR, Perreira JM, Feeley EM, Aker AM, Savidis G, Smith SE, Elia AE, Everitt AR, Vora M, Pertel T, Elledge SJ, Kellam P, Brass AL. The CD225 domain of IFITM3 is required for both IFITM protein association and inhibition of influenza A virus and dengue virus replication. J Virol. 2013 Jul;87(14):7837-52.

Zhu J, Gaiha GD, John SP, Pertel T, Chin CR, Gao G, Qu H, Walker BD, Elledge SJ, Brass AL. Reactivation of latent HIV-1 by inhibition of BRD4. Cell Rep. 2012 Oct 25;2(4):807-16.

Everitt AR, Clare S, Pertel T, John SP, Wash RS, Smith SE, Chin CR, Feeley EM, Sims JS, Adams DJ, Wise HM, Kane L, Goulding D, Digard P, Anttila V, Baillie JK, Walsh TS, Hume DA, Palotie A, Xue Y, Colonna V, Tyler-Smith C, Dunning J, Gordon SB; GenISIS Investigators; MOSAIC Investigators; Smyth RL, Openshaw PJ, Dougan G, Brass AL, Kellam P. IFITM3 restricts the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. Nature. 2012 Mar 25;484(7395):519-23.

Brass AL, Huang IC, Benita Y, John SP, Krishnan MN, Feeley EM, Ryan BJ, Weyer JL, van der Weyden L, Fikrig E, Adams DJ, Xavier RJ, Farzan M, Elledge SJ. The IFITM proteins mediate cellular resistance to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus. Cell. 2009 Dec 24;139(7):1243-54.

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